Abstract:
We derive formalism for determining $\textbf{2} + \mathcal J \to \textbf{2}$ infinite-volume transition amplitudes from finite-volume matrix elements. Specifically, we present a relativistic, model-independent relation between finite-volume matrix elements of external currents and the physically observable infinite-volume matrix elements involving two-particle asymptotic states. The result presented holds for states composed of two scalar bosons. These can be identical or non-identical and, in the latter case, can be either degenerate or non-degenerate. We further accommodate any number of strongly-coupled two-scalar channels. This formalism will, for example, allow future lattice QCD calculations of the $\rho$-meson form factor, in which the unstable nature of the $\rho$ is rigorously accommodated.

Abstract:
We derive a model-independent expression for finite-volume matrix elements. Specifically, we present a relativistic, non-perturbative analysis of the matrix element of an external current between a one-scalar in-state and a two-scalar out-state. Our result, which is valid for energies below higher-particle inelastic thresholds, generalizes the Lellouch-Luscher formula in two ways: we allow the external current to inject arbitrary momentum into the system and we allow for the final state to be composed an arbitrary number of strongly coupled two-particle states with arbitrary partial waves (including partial-wave mixing induced by the volume). We also illustrate how our general result can be applied to some key examples, such as heavy meson decays and meson photo production. Finally, we point out complications that arise involving unstable resonance states, such as $B\rightarrow K^*\ell^+\ell^-$ when staggered or mixed-action/partially-quenched calculations are performed.

Abstract:
We perform a model-independent, non-perturbative investigation of two-point and three-point finite-volume correlation functions in the energy regime where two-particle states can go on-shell. We study three-point functions involving a single incoming particle and an outgoing two-particle state, relevant, for example, for studies of meson decays (e.g., B-to-pi Kll) or meson photo production (e.g., pi gamma-to-pi pi). We observe that, while the spectrum solely depends on the on-shell scattering amplitude, the correlation functions also depend on off-shell amplitudes. The main result of this work is a generalization of the Lellouch-Luscher formula relating matrix elements of currents in finite and infinite spatial volumes. We extend that work by considering a theory with multiple, strongly-coupled channels and by accommodating external currents which inject arbitrary four-momentum as well as arbitrary angular momentum. The result is exact up to exponentially suppressed corrections governed by the pion mass times the box size. We also apply our master equation to various examples, including the two processes mentioned above as well as examples where the final state is an admixture of two open channels.

Abstract:
We present a model-independent, non-perturbative relation between finite-volume matrix elements and infinite-volume $\textbf{0}\rightarrow\textbf{2}$ and $\textbf{1}\rightarrow\textbf{2}$ transition amplitudes. Our result accommodates theories in which the final two-particle state is coupled to any number of other two-body channels, with all angular momentum states included. The derivation uses generic, fully relativistic field theory, and is exact up to exponentially suppressed corrections in the lightest particle mass times the box size. This work distinguishes itself from previous studies by accommodating particles with any intrinsic spin. To illustrate the utility of our general result, we discuss how it can be implemented for studies of $N+\mathcal{J}~\rightarrow~(N\pi,N\eta,N\eta',\Sigma K,\Lambda K)$ transitions, where $\mathcal{J}$ is a generic external current. The reduction of rotational symmetry, due to the cubic finite volume, manifests in this example through the mixing of S- and P-waves when the system has nonzero total momentum.

Abstract:
Properties of scalar-isoscalar mesons are analysed using separable interactions in three decay channels: pion-pion, kaon-antikaon and an effective 2pion-2pion. We obtain different solutions by fitting various data on the pion-pion and kaon-antikaon phase shifts and inelasticities including the CERN-Cracow-Munich measurements of the pion- p --> pion+ pion- n reaction on a polarized target. Analytical structure of the meson-meson multichannel amplitudes is studied with a special emphasis on the role played by the S-matrix zeroes. S-matrix poles are found in the complex energy plane and interpreted as scalar resonances. We see a wide f0(500), a narrow f0(980) and a relatively narrow f0(1400). In one solution a resonance at about 1700 MeV is also found. Total, elastic and inelastic channel cross sections, branching ratios and coupling constants are evaluated and compared with data. We construct approximation to our model and show that the Breit-Wigner approach has a limited phenomenological applicability.

Abstract:
The quantization condition for two-particle systems with arbitrary number of two-body open coupled channels, spin, momentum, and masses in a finite volume with either periodic or twisted boundary conditions is presented. Although emphasis is placed in cubic volumes, the result holds for asymmetric volumes. The result is relativistic, holds for all momenta below the three- and four-particle thresholds, and is exact up to exponential volume corrections that are governed by L/r, where L is the spatial extent of the volume and r is the range of the interactions between the particles. For hadronic systems the range of the interaction is set by the inverse of the pion mass, m_pi, and as a result the formalism presented is suitable for m_pi L >> 1. The condition presented is in agreement with all previous studies of two-body systems in a finite volume. Implications of the formalism for the studies of multichannel baryon-baryon systems are discussed.

Abstract:
We present results of a new multichannel partial-wave analysis for $\bar K N$ scattering in the c.m.\ energy range 1480 to 2100 MeV. Resonance parameters were extracted by fitting partial-wave amplitudes from all considered channels using a multichannel parametrization that is consistent with $S$-matrix unitarity. The resonance parameters are generally in good agreement with predictions of the Koniuk-Isgur quark model.

Abstract:
We present results of a new multichannel partial-wave analysis for \pi N scattering in the c.m. energy range 1080 to 2100 MeV. This work explicitly includes \eta N and K \Lambda channels and the single pion photoproduction channel. Resonance parameters were extracted by fitting partial-wave amplitudes from all considered channels using a multichannel parametrization that is consistent with S-matrix unitarity. The resonance parameters so obtained are compared to predictions of quark models.

Abstract:
The multichannel S- and P-wave amplitudes for the pion-pion scattering, constructed requiring analyticity and unitarity of the S-matrix and using the uniformization procedure, are elaborated using the dispersion relations with imposed crossing symmetry condition. The amplitudes are modified in the low-energy region to improve their consistency with experimental data and the dispersion relations. Agreement with data is achieved for both amplitudes from the threshold up to 1.8 GeV and with dispersion relations up to 1.1 GeV. Consequences of the applied modifications, e.g. changes of the S-wave lowest-pole positions, are presented.

Abstract:
Purpose: Different multichannel methods for film dosimetry have been proposed in the literature. Two of them are the weighted mean method and the method put forth by Micke et al and Mayer et al. The purpose of this work was to compare their results and to develop a generalized channel-independent perturbations framework in which both methods enter as special cases. Methods: Four models of channel-independent perturbations were compared: weighted mean, Micke-Mayer method, uniform distribution and truncated normal distribution. A closed-form formula to calculate film doses and the associated Type B uncertainty for all four models was deduced. To evaluate the models, film dose distributions were compared with planned and measured dose distributions. At the same time, several elements of the dosimetry process were compared: film type EBT2 versus EBT3, different waiting-time windows, reflection mode versus transmission mode scanning, and planned versus measured dose distribution for film calibration and for gamma-index analysis. The methods and the models described in this study are publicly accessible through IRISEU. Alpha 1.1 (http://www.iriseu.com). IRISEU. is a cloud computing web application for calibration and dosimetry of radiochromic films. Results: The truncated normal distribution model provided the best agreement between film and reference doses, both for calibration and gamma-index verification, and proved itself superior to both the weighted mean model, which neglects correlations between the channels, and the Micke-Mayer model, whose accuracy depends on the properties of the sensitometric curves. Conclusions: The truncated normal distribution model of channel-independent perturbations was found superior to the other three models under comparison and we propose its use for multichannel dosimetry.