Abstract:
Proofs of Bell's theorem and the data analysis used to show its violation have commonly assumed a spatially stationary underlying process. However, it has been shown recently that the appropriate Bell's inequality holds identically for cross correlations of three or four lists of + or - 1's, independently of statistical assumptions. When data consistent with its derivation are analyzed without imposition of the stationarity assumption, the resulting correlations satisfy the Bell inequality.

Abstract:
It is one of the most remarkable features of quantum physics that measurements on spatially separated systems cannot always be described by a locally causal theory. In such a theory, the outcomes of local measurements are determined in advance solely by some unknown (or hidden) variables and the choice of local measurements. Correlations that are allowed within the framework of a locally causal theory are termed classical. Typically, the fact that quantum mechanics does not always result in classical correlations is revealed by the violation of Bell inequalities, which are constraints that have to be satisfied by any classical correlations. It has been known for a long time that entanglement is necessary to demonstrate nonclassical correlations, and hence a Bell inequality violation. However, since some entangled quantum states are known to admit explicit locally causal models, the exact role of entanglement in Bell inequality violation has remained obscure. This thesis provides both a comprehensive review on these issues as well as a report on new discoveries made to clarify the relationship between entanglement and Bell inequality violation.

Abstract:
Besides using the laser beam, it is very tempting to directly testify the Bell inequality at high energy experiments where the spin correlation is exactly what the original Bell inequality investigates. In this work, we follow the proposal raised in literature and use the successive decays $J/\psi\to\gamma\eta_c\to \Lambda\bar\Lambda\to p\pi^-\bar p\pi^+$ to testify the Bell inequality. Our goal is twofold, namely, we first make a Monte-Carlo simulation of the processes based on the quantum field theory (QFT). Since the underlying theory is QFT, it implies that we pre-admit the validity of quantum picture. Even though the QFT is true, we need to find how big the database should be, so that we can clearly show deviations of the correlation from the Bell inequality determined by the local hidden variable theory. There have been some critiques on the proposed method, so in the second part, we suggest some improvements which may help to remedy the ambiguities indicated by the critiques. It may be realized at an updated facility of high energy physics, such as BES III.

Abstract:
We derive a multipartite generalized Bell inequality which involves the entire range of settings for each of the local observers. Especially, it is applied to show non-local behavior of a six-qubit mixture of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger correlations stronger than previous Bell inequalities. For certain noise admixture to the correlations an explicit local realistic model exists in the case of a standard Bell experiment. Bell experiments with many local settings reveal the non-locality of the state. It turns out that the new inequality is more stringent than many other Bell inequalities in the specific quantum state.

Abstract:
A common problem in Bell type experiments is the well-known detection loophole: if the detection efficiencies are not perfect and if one simply post-selects the conclusive events, one might observe a violation of a Bell inequality, even though a local model could have explained the experimental results. In this paper, we analyze the set of all post-selected correlations that can be explained by a local model, and show that it forms a polytope, larger than the Bell local polytope. We characterize the facets of this post-selected local polytope in the CHSH scenario, where two parties have binary inputs and outcomes. Our approach gives new insights on the detection loophole problem.

Abstract:
Einstein's locality is invoked to derive a correlation inequality. In the case of ideal experiments, this inequality is equivalent to Bell's original inequality of 1965 which, as is well known, is violated by a maximum factor of 1.5. The crucial point is that even in the case of real experiments where polarizers and detectors are non-ideal, the present inequality is violated by a factor of 1.5, whereas previous inequalities such as Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality of 1969 and Clauser-Horne inequality of 1974 are violated by a factor of $\sqrt 2$. The larger magnitude of violation can be of importance for the experimental test of locality. Moreover, the supplementary assumption used to derive this inequality is weaker than Garuccio-Rapisarda assumption. Thus an experiment based on this inequality refutes a larger family of hidden variable theories than an experiment based on Garuccio-Rapisarda inequality.

Abstract:
We present a brief historical introduction to the topic of Bell's theorem. Next we present the surprising features of the three particle Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states. Finally we shall present a method of analysis of the GHZ correlations, which is based on a numerical approach, which is effectively equivalent to the full set of Bell inequalities for correlation functions for the given problem. The aim of our numerical approach is to answer the following question. Do additional possible local settings lead for the GHZ states to more pronounced violation of local realism (measured by the resistance of the quantum nature of the correlations with respect ``white'' noise admixtures)?

Abstract:
We analyze the correlation structure of bipartite arbitrary-dimensional Bell inequalities via novel conditions of correlations in terms of differences of joint probabilities called correlators. The conditions of correlations are shown to be necessary for the multi-level Bell state. In particular, we find that the bipartite arbitrary-dimensional Bell-type inequalities introduced by Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu [Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 040404 (2002)] and Son-Lee-Kim [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 060406 (2006)] are composed of correlators, and we reveal that the maximal violations by the Bell state just fit the conditions of quantum correlations. Correlators can be considered as essential elements of Bell inequalities.

Abstract:
To reproduce in a local hidden variables theory correlations that violate Bell inequalities, communication must occur between the parties. We show that the amount of violation of a Bell inequality imposes a lower bound on the average communication needed to produce these correlations. Moreover, for every probability distribution there exists an optimal inequality for which the degree of violation gives the minimal average communication. As an example, to produce using classical resources the correlations that maximally violate the CHSH inequality, 0.4142 bits of communication are necessary and sufficient. For Bell tests performed on two entangled states of dimension d>=3 where each party has the choice between two measurements, our results suggest that more communication is needed to simulate outcomes obtained from certain non-maximally entangled states than maximally entangled ones.