Abstract:
Basing on the relation between the Coulomb Green function and the Green function of harmonic oscillator, the algebraic representation of the many-particle Coulomb Green function in the form of annihilation and creation operators is established. These results allow us to construct purely algebraic method for atomic calculations and thus to reduce rather complicated calculations of matrix elements to algebraic procedures of transforming the products of annihilation and creation operators to a normal form. Effectiveness of the constructed method is demonstrated through the example problem: the ground state of hydrogenic molecule. The calculation algorithm of this algebraic approach is simple and suitable for symbolic calculation programs, such as Mathematica, that widely enlarge the application field of the Coulomb Green function

Abstract:
A new perturbational approach to spectral and thermal properties of strongly correlated electron systems is presented: The Anderson model is reexamined for $U\to\infty$\,, and it is shown that an expansion of Green's functions with respect to the hybridization $V$ built on Feynman diagrams obeying standard rules is possible. The local correlations of the unperturbed system (the atomic limit) are included exactly through a two-particle vertex. No auxiliary particles are introduced into the theory. As an example and test the small energy scale and many-body resonance of the Kondo problem are reproduced analytically.

Abstract:
A quantum Monte Carlo method of determining Jastrow-Slater wave functions for which the energy is stationary with respect to variations in the single-particle orbitals is presented. A potential is determined by a least-squares fitting of fluctuations in the energy with a linear combination of one-body operators. This potential is used in a self-consistent scheme for the orbitals whose solution ensures that the energy of the correlated wave function is stationary with respect to variations in the orbitals. The method is feasible for atoms, molecules, and solids and is demonstrated for the carbon and neon atoms.

Abstract:
We show how few-particle Green's functions can be calculated efficiently for models with nearest-neighbor hopping, for infinite lattices in any dimension. As an example, for one dimensional spinless fermions with both nearest-neighbor and second nearest-neighbor interactions, we investigate the ground states for up to 5 fermions. This allows us not only to find the stability region of various bound complexes, but also to infer the phase diagram at small but finite concentrations.

Abstract:
The Bose-Einstein condensation of correlated atoms in a trap is studied by examining the effect of inter-particle correlations to one-body properties of atomic systems at zero temperature using a simplified formula for the correlated two body density distribution. Analytical expressions for the density distribution and rms radius of the atomic systems are derived using four different expressions of Jastrow type correlation function. In one case, in addition, the one-body density matrix, momentum distribution and kinetic energy are calculated analytically, while the natural orbitals and natural occupation numbers are also predicted in this case. Simple approximate expressions for the mean square radius and kinetic energy are also given.

Abstract:
Dyson orbitals play an important role in understanding quasi-particle effects in the correlated ground state of a many-particle system and are relevant for describing the Compton scattering cross section beyond the frameworks of the impulse approximation (IA) and the independent particle model (IPM). Here we discuss corrections to the Kohn-Sham energies due to quasi-particle effects in terms of Dyson orbitals and obtain a relatively simple local form of the exchange-correlation energy. Illustrative examples are presented to show the usefulness of our scheme.

Abstract:
The performance of basis sets made of numerical atomic orbitals is explored in density-functional calculations of solids and molecules. With the aim of optimizing basis quality while maintaining strict localization of the orbitals, as needed for linear-scaling calculations, several schemes have been tried. The best performance is obtained for the basis sets generated according to a new scheme presented here, a flexibilization of previous proposals. The basis sets are tested versus converged plane-wave calculations on a significant variety of systems, including covalent, ionic and metallic. Satisfactory convergence (deviations significantly smaller than the accuracy of the underlying theory) is obtained for reasonably small basis sizes, with a clear improvement over previous schemes. The transferability of the obtained basis sets is tested in several cases and it is found to be satisfactory as well.

Abstract:
We present an efficient scheme for accurate electronic structure interpolations based on the systematically improvable optimized atomic orbitals. The atomic orbitals are generated by minimizing the spillage value between the atomic basis calculations and the converged plane wave basis calculations on some coarse $k$-point grid. They are then used to calculate the band structure of the full Brillouin zone using the linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) algorithms. We find that usually 16 -- 25 orbitals per atom can give an accuracy of about 10 meV compared to the full {\it ab initio} calculations. The current scheme has several advantages over the existing interpolation schemes. The scheme is easy to implement and robust which works equally well for metallic systems and systems with complex band structures. Furthermore, the atomic orbitals have much better transferability than the Shirley's basis and Wannier functions, which is very useful for the perturbation calculations.

Abstract:
We present a plane wave/pseudopotential implementation of the method to calculate electron transport properties of nanostructures. The conductance is calculated via the Landauer formula within formalism of Green's functions. Nonorthogonal Wannier-type atomic orbitals are obtained by the sequential unitary rotations of virtual and occupied Kohn-Sham orbitals, which is followed by two-step variational localization. We use these non-orthogonal Wannier type atomic orbitals to partition the Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian into electrode-contact-electrode submatrices. The electrode parts of the system are modeled by two metal clusters with additional Lorentzian broadening of discrete energy levels. We examined our implementation by modeling the transport properties of Na atomic wires. Our results indicate that with the appropriate level broadening the small cluster model for contacts reproduces odd-even oscillations of the conductance as a function of the nanowire length.

Abstract:
We analyze behavior of correlated electrons described by Hubbard-like models at intermediate and strong coupling. We show that with increasing interaction a pole in a generic two-particle Green function is approached. The pole signals metal-insulator transition at half filling and gives rise to a new vanishing ``Kondo'' scale causing breakdown of weak-coupling perturbation theory. To describe the critical behavior at the metal-insulator transition a novel, self-consistent diagrammatic technique with two-particle Green functions is developed. The theory is based on the linked-cluster expansion for the thermodynamic potential with electron-electron interaction as propagator. Parquet diagrams with a generating functional are derived. Numerical instabilities due to the metal-insulator transition are demonstrated on simplifications of the parquet algebra with ring and ladder series only. A stable numerical solution in the critical region is reached by factorization of singular terms via a low-frequency expansion in the vertex function. We stress the necessity for dynamical vertex renormalizations, missing in the simple approximations, in order to describe the critical, strong-coupling behavior correctly. We propose a simplification of the full parquet approximation by keeping only most divergent terms in the asymptotic strong-coupling region. A qualitatively new, feasible approximation suitable for the description of a transition from weak to strong coupling is obtained.