Abstract:
We have recently developed a set of equations of state based on the nuclear energy density functional theory providing a unified description of the different regions constituting the interior of neutron stars and magnetars. The nuclear functionals, which were constructed from generalized Skyrme effective nucleon-nucleon interactions, yield not only an excellent fit to essentially all experimental atomic mass data but were also constrained to reproduce the neutron-matter equation of state as obtained from realistic many-body calculations.

Abstract:
Antikaons in dense nuclear matter are studied using a chiral unitary approach which incorporates the $s$- and p-waves of the $\bar K N$ interaction. We include, in a self-consistent way, Pauli blocking effects, meson self-energies modified by nuclear short-range correlations and baryon binding potentials. We show that the on-shell factorization cannot be applied to evaluate the in-medium corrections to p-wave amplitudes. We also obtain an attractive shift for the $\Lambda$ and $\Sigma$ masses of -30 MeV at saturation density while the $\Sigma^*$ width gets sensibly increased to about 80 MeV. The moderate attraction developed by the antikaon does not support the existence of very deep and narrow bound states.

Abstract:
We present a summary of work done on dense hadronic matter, based on the Skyrme model, which provides a unified approach to high density, valid in the large $N_c$ limit. In our picture, dense hadronic matter is described by the {\em classical} soliton configuration with minimum energy for the given baryon number density. By incorporating the meson fluctuations on such ground state we obtain an effective Lagrangian for meson dynamics in a dense medium. Our starting point has been the Skyrme model defined in terms of pions, thereafter we have extended and improved the model by incorporating other degrees of freedom such as dilaton, kaons and vector mesons.

Abstract:
The dense baryonic matter and hadron properties in medium were simulated by using a Skyrme model including the ground state vector mesons introduced from the hidden local symmetry approach up to the next to leading order. We found that both the $\rho$ and $\omega$ mesons affect the baryonic matter and medium modified hadron properties dramatically. The most remarkable observation is that, the pion decay constant and the nucleon mass have the similar density dependence which agrees with the large $N_c$ argument. Explicitly, they drop with increasing density in the Skyrmion phase and stop decreasing at $n_{1/2}^{}$ at which the skyrmions in medium fractionize into half-skyrmions and remains nearly constants in the half-skyrmion phase. This density dependence in the half-skyrmion phase indicates that, although $\langle \bar{q}q\rangle \neq 0$ on average in this phase, chiral symmetry is not restored since hadrons are still massive and there exist pions. In addition, the nearly constant nucleon mass means that it could has a non-vanishing component up to the chiral transition, which might shed light on the origin of the nucleon mass.

Abstract:
As the first in a series of systematic work on dense hadronic matter, we study the properties of the pion in dense medium using Skyrme's effective Lagrangian as a unified theory of the hadronic interactions applicable in the large $N_c$ limit. Dense baryonic matter is described as the ground state of a skyrmion matter which appears in two differentiated phases as a function of matter density: i) at high densities as a stable cubic-centered (CC) half-skyrmion crystal; ii) at low densities as an unstable face-centered cubic (FCC) skyrmion crystal. We substitute the latter by a stable inhomogeneous phase of lumps of dense matter, which represents a naive Maxwell construction of the phase transition. This baryonic dense medium serves as a background for the pions whose effective {\em in-medium} Lagrangian we construct by allowing time-dependent quantum fluctuations on the classical dense matter field. We find that the same parameter which describes the phase transition for baryonic matter, the expectation value of the $\sigma$ field, also describes the phase transition for the dynamics of the {\em in-medium} pion. Thus, the structure of the baryonic ground state $crucially$ determines the behavior of the pion in the medium. As matter density increases, $<\sigma>$ decreases, a phenomenon which we interpret to signal, in terms of the parameters of the effective pion Lagrangian $f_\pi^*$ and $m_\pi^*$, the restoration of chiral symmetry at high density. Our calculation shows also the important role played by the higher powers in the density as it increases and chiral symmetry is being restored. This feature is likely to be generic at high density although our ground state may not be the true ground state.

Abstract:
In the sixties,the first author and R.Kasanin have started developing a mean field theory of dense matter.This paper presents a short review of the basic ideas of the theory,and discusses some examples of its applications,which range from DAC experiments to modelling of planetary interiors.

Abstract:
An equation of state (EOS) of neutron star matter, describing both the neutron star crust and the liquid core, is calculated. It is based on the effective nuclear interaction SLy of the Skyrme type, which is particularly suitable for the application to the calculation of the properties of very neutron rich matter (Chabanat et al. 1997, 1998). The structure of the crust, and its EOS, is calculated in the T=0 approximation, and under the assumption of the ground state composition. The crust-core transition is a very weakly first-order phase transition, with relative density jump of about one percent. The EOS of the liquid core is calculated assuming (minimal) n-p-e-mu composition. Parameters of static neutron stars are calculated and compared with existing observational data on neutron stars. The minimum and maximum masses of static neutron stars are 0.094 M_sun and 2.05 M_sun, respectively. Effects of rotation on the minimum and the maximum mass of neutron stars are briefly discussed.

Abstract:
A nonlinear chiral SU(3) approach including the spin 3/2 decuplet is developed to describe dense matter. The coupling constants of the baryon resonances to the scalar mesons are determined from the decuplet vacuum masses and SU(3) symmetry relations. Different methods of mass generation show significant differences in the properties of the spin-3/2 particles and in the nuclear equation of state.

Abstract:
We present a unified approach to neutrino processes in nucleon matter based on Landau's theory of Fermi liquids that includes one- and two-quasiparticle-quasihole pair states as well as mean-field effects. We show how rates of neutrino processes involving two nucleons may be calculated in terms of the collision integral in the Landau transport equation for quasiparticles. Using a relaxation time approximation, we solve the transport equation for density and spin-density fluctuations and derive a general form for the response functions. We apply our approach to neutral-current processes in neutron matter, where the spin response function is crucial for calculations of neutrino elastic and inelastic scattering, neutrino-pair bremsstrahlung and absorption from strongly-interacting nucleons. We calculate the relaxation rates using modern nuclear interactions and including many-body contributions, and find that rates of neutrino processes are reduced compared with estimates based on the one-pion exchange interaction, which is used in current simulations of core-collapse supernovae.

Abstract:
We present a unified approach to neutrino processes in nucleon matter based on Landau's theory of Fermi liquids that includes one- and two-quasiparticle-quasihole pair states as well as mean-field effects. We show how rates of neutrino processes involving two nucleons may be calculated in terms of the collision integral in the Landau transport equation for quasiparticles. Using a relaxation time approximation, we solve the transport equation for density and spin-density fluctuations and derive a general form for the response functions. We apply our approach to neutral-current processes in neutron matter, where the spin response function is crucial for calculations of neutrino elastic and inelastic scattering, neutrino-pair bremsstrahlung and absorption from strongly-interacting nucleons. We calculate the relaxation rates using modern nuclear interactions and including many-body contributions, and find that rates of neutrino processes are reduced compared with estimates based on the one-pion exchange interaction, which is used in current simulations of core-collapse supernovae.