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Influence of vortex-vortex interaction on critical currents across low-angle grain boundaries in YBa2Cu3O7-delta thin films  [PDF]
J. Albrecht,S. Leonhardt,H. Kronmueller
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.63.014507
Abstract: Low-angle grain boundaries with misorientation angles theta < 5 degrees in optimally doped thin films of YBCO are investigated by magnetooptical imaging. By using a numerical inversion scheme of Biot-Savart's law the critical current density across the grain boundary can be determined with a spatial resolution of about 5 micrometers. Detailed investigation of the spatially resolved flux density and current density data shows that the current density across the boundary varies with varying local flux density. Combining the corresponding flux and current pattern it is found that there exists a universal dependency of the grain boundary current on the local flux density. A change in the local flux density means a variation in the flux line-flux line distance. With this knowledge a model is developped that explains the flux-current relation by means of magnetic vortex-vortex interaction.
The Normal State Resistivity of Grain Boundaries in YBa2Cu3O7-delta  [PDF]
J. H. T. Ransley,S. H. Mennema,K. G. Sandeman,G. Burnell,J. I. Kye,B. Oh,E. J. Tarte,J. E. Evetts,M. G. Blamire
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1063/1.1753055
Abstract: Using an optimized bridge geometry we have been able to make accurate measurements of the properties of YBa2Cu3O7-delta grain boundaries above Tc. The results show a strong dependence of the change of resistance with temperature on grain boundary angle. Analysis of our results in the context of band-bending allows us to estimate the height of the potential barrier present at the grain boundary interface.
MOLECULAR DYNAMICS SIMULATION ON LOW ANGLE GRAIN BOUNDARIES

Li Bin,Zhang Xiu-mu,Li Yi-yi,

中国物理 B , 1998,
Abstract: Molecular dynamics simulation has been performed to investigate the microstructure and properties of low angle grain boundaries, employing the embedded atom method(EAM) type interatomic potential for Ni-Al alloy. The energies of the low angle grain boundaries with different dislocation densities were calculated, and the results indicate that the low angle grain boundary energy varies as a function of misorientation angle. The simulation was found in good agreement with the calculation on the basis of the dislocation theories in the low angle scale. The low angle grain boundary energy goes up with the increase of misorientation angle and tends to go down after reaching a maximum. An energy cusp exists when the misorientation angle increases further, but in this scale the dislocation theories are invalid for energy calculation due to the strong interaction of the dislocations at the boundaries. The simulation results also indicate that the microstructure of low angle grain boundaries can still be described as dislocations when the misorientation angle is larger than 10°.
The critical current of YBa2Cu3O7-d Low Angle Grain Boundaries  [PDF]
J. H. Durrell,M. J. Hogg,F. Kahlmann,Z. H. Barber,M. G. Blamire,J. E. Evetts
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.90.247006
Abstract: Transport critical current measurements have been performed on 5 degree [001]-tilt thin film YBa2Cu3O7-delta single grain boundaries with magnetic field rotated in the plane of the film, phi. The variation of the critical current has been determined as a function of the angle between the magnetic field and the grain boundary plane. In applied fields above 1 T the critical current, j_c, is found to be strongly suppressed only when the magnetic field is within an angle phi_k of the grain boundary. Outside this angular range the behavior of the artificial grain boundary is dominated by the critical current of the grains. We show that the phi dependence of j_c in the suppressed region is well described by a flux cutting model.
Self-organized current transport through low angle grain boundaries in YBa$_2$Cu$_3$O$_{7-δ}$ thin films, studied magnetometrically  [PDF]
J. R. Thompson,H. J. Kim,C. Cantoni,D. K. Christen,R. Feenstra,D. T. Verebelyi
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.69.104509
Abstract: The critical current density flowing across low angle grain boundaries in YBa$_2$Cu$_3$O$_{7-\delta}$ thin films has been studied magnetometrically. Films (200 nm thickness) were deposited on SrTiO$_3$ bicrystal substrates containing a single [001] tilt boundary, with angles of 2, 3, 5, and 7 degrees, and the films were patterned into rings. Their magnetic moments were measured in applied magnetic fields up to 30 kOe at temperatures of 5 - 95 K; current densities of rings with or without grain boundaries were obtained from a modified critical state model. For rings containing 5 and 7 degree boundaries, the magnetic response depends strongly on the field history, which arises in large part from self-field effects acting on the grain boundary.
Zero Modes on Zero-Angle Grain Boundaries in Graphene  [PDF]
Madeleine Phillips,E. J. Mele
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.91.125404
Abstract: Electronic states confined to zero angle grain boundaries in single layer graphene are analyzed using topological band theoretic arguments. We identify a hidden chiral symmetry which supports symmetry protected zero modes in projected bulk gaps. These branches occupy a finite fraction of the interface-projected Brillouin zone and terminate at bulk gap closures, manifesting topological transitions in the occupied manifolds of the bulk systems that are joined at an interface. These features are studied by numerical calculations on a tight binding lattice and by analysis of the geometric phases of the bulk ground states.
Influence of high-angle grain boundaries on the charge order formation in the $\mathrm{YBa_2Cu_3O_{7-δ}}$  [PDF]
Vladimir S. Boyko,Roman Ya. Kezerashvili
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1016/j.ssc.2009.05.040
Abstract: We are examining the possibility of the formation of charge order in the high-temperature superconductor $\mathrm{YBa_2Cu_3O_{7-\delta}}$ (YBCO) due to interaction between the charged oxygen vacancies or di-vacancies. The molecular dynamics method is used to analyze the displacement fields around these defects. The distribution of displacements around a single charged oxygen vacancy and di-vacancy, determination of binding energy of oxygen vacancy in di-vacancy demonstrate that there is, in principle, the possibility of the charge order formation in YBCO by charged oxygen vacancies or di-vacancies. It is shown that the charge order formation first of all should be formed near crystal lattice defects and that the high-angle grain boundaries (GBs) regions are preferable places for this formation. The adsorption capability of high-angle GBs with respect to the stripe embryo formation is determined. It is shown that there is a proportional dependence between the repetition distance along the high-angle GBs and an energy advantage of the stripe embryo formation in GBs.
Critical Current Density of YBa{2}Cu{3}O{7-d} Low-Angle Grain Boundaries in Self-Field  [PDF]
D. T. Verebelyi,C. Cantoni,J. D. Budai,D. K. Christen,H. J. Kim,J. R. Thompson
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1063/1.1360230
Abstract: A study has been perfomed on the superconducting critical current density J_{c} flowing across low angle grain boundaries in epitaxial thin films of YBa{2}Cu{3}O{7-d} (YBCO). The materials studied were dual grain boundary rings deposited on SrTiO{3} and containing 2, 3, 5 and 7 degree tilt boundaries. The current density in self-field was determined by magnetometric methods at temperatures from 5 K to T_c. We conclude that at the higher temperatures of coated conductor applications, there is limited potential for improving J_{c} by reducing the grain boundary angle below about 3 degrees.
The atomic structure of large-angle grain boundaries $Σ5$ and $Σ13$ in ${\rm YBa_2Cu_3O_{7-δ}}$ and their transport properties  [PDF]
V. S. Boyko,A. M. Levine
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.64.224525
Abstract: We present the results of a computer simulation of the atomic structures of large-angle symmetrical tilt grain boundaries (GBs) $\Sigma 5$ (misorientation angles $\q{36.87}{^{\circ}}$ and $\q{53.13}{^{\circ}}$), $\Sigma 13$ (misorientation angles $\q{22.62}{^{\circ}}$ and $\q{67.38}{^{\circ}}$). The critical strain level $\epsilon_{crit}$ criterion (phenomenological criterion) of Chisholm and Pennycook is applied to the computer simulation data to estimate the thickness of the nonsuperconducting layer ${\rm h_n}$ enveloping the grain boundaries. The ${\rm h_n}$ is estimated also by a bond-valence-sum analysis. We propose that the phenomenological criterion is caused by the change of the bond lengths and valence of atoms in the GB structure on the atomic level. The macro- and micro- approaches become consistent if the $\epsilon_{crit}$ is greater than in earlier papers. It is predicted that the symmetrical tilt GB $\Sigma5$ $\theta = \q{53.13}{^{\circ}}$ should demonstrate a largest critical current across the boundary.
Effect of the frequency of high-angle grain boundaries on the corrosion performance of 5wt%Cr steel in a CO2 aqueous environment  [PDF]
Hui-bin Wu,Tao Wu,Gang Niu,Tao Li,Rui-yan Sun,Yang Gu
- , 2018, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12613-018-1575-x
Abstract: The corrosion behavior of 5wt%Cr steel tempered at different temperatures was investigated by immersion testing and electrochemical testing in a CO2 aqueous environment. When the tempering temperature exceeded 500°C, the corrosion rate increased. The corrosion layers consisted of Cr-rich compounds, which affected the corrosion behaviors of the steels immersed in the corrosive solution. The results of electrochemical experiments demonstrated that 5wt%Cr steels with different microstructures exhibited pre-passivation characteristics that decreased their corrosion rate. Analysis by electron back-scattered diffraction showed that the frequency of high-angle grain boundaries (HAGBs) and the corrosion rate were well-correlated in specimens tempered at different temperatures. The corrosion rate increased with increasing HAGB frequency.
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