Abstract:
In this paper, we empirically investigate correlations among four centrality measures, originated from the social science, of various complex networks. For each network, we compute the centrality measures, from which the partial correlation as well as the correlation coefficient among measures is estimated. We uncover that the degree and the betweenness centrality are highly correlated; furthermore, the betweenness follows a power-law distribution irrespective of the type of networks. This characteristic is further examined in terms of the conditional probability distribution of the betweenness, given the degree. The conditional distribution also exhibits a power-law behavior independent of the degree which explains partially, if not whole, the origin of the power-law distribution of the betweenness. A similar analysis on the random network reveals that these characteristics are not found in the random network.

Abstract:
We analyze the betweenness centrality (BC) of nodes in large complex networks. In general, the BC is increasing with connectivity as a power law with an exponent $\eta$. We find that for trees or networks with a small loop density $\eta=2$ while a larger density of loops leads to $\eta<2$. For scale-free networks characterized by an exponent $\gamma$ which describes the connectivity distribution decay, the BC is also distributed according to a power law with a non universal exponent $\delta$. We show that this exponent $\delta$ must satisfy the exact bound $\delta\geq (\gamma+1)/2$. If the scale free network is a tree, then we have the equality $\delta=(\gamma+1)/2$.

Abstract:
Existing centrality measures for social network analysis suggest the im-portance of an actor and give consideration to actor's given structural position in a network. These existing measures suggest specific attribute of an actor (i.e., popularity, accessibility, and brokerage behavior). In this study, we propose new hybrid centrality measures (i.e., Degree-Degree, Degree-Closeness and Degree-Betweenness), by combining existing measures (i.e., degree, closeness and betweenness) with a proposition to better understand the importance of actors in a given network. Generalized set of measures are also proposed for weighted networks. Our analysis of co-authorship networks dataset suggests significant correlation of our proposed new centrality measures (especially weighted networks) than traditional centrality measures with performance of the scholars. Thus, they are useful measures which can be used instead of traditional measures to show prominence of the actors in a network.

Abstract:
Betweenness is a well-known centrality measure that ranks the nodes of a network according to their participation in shortest paths. Since an exact computation is prohibitive in large networks, several approximation algorithms have been proposed. Besides that, recent years have seen the publication of dynamic algorithms for efficient recomputation of betweenness in networks that change over time. In this paper we propose the first betweenness centrality approximation algorithms with a provable guarantee on the maximum approximation error for dynamic networks. Several new intermediate algorithmic results contribute to the respective approximation algorithms: (i) new upper bounds on the vertex diameter, (ii) the first fully-dynamic algorithm for updating an approximation of the vertex diameter in undirected graphs, and (iii) an algorithm with lower time complexity for updating single-source shortest paths in unweighted graphs after a batch of edge actions. Using approximation, our algorithms are the first to make in-memory computation of betweenness in dynamic networks with millions of edges feasible. Our experiments show that our algorithms can achieve substantial speedups compared to recomputation, up to several orders of magnitude. Moreover, the approximation accuracy is usually significantly better than the theoretical guarantee in terms of absolute error. More importantly, for reasonably small approximation error thresholds, the rank of nodes is well preserved, in particular for nodes with high betweenness.

Abstract:
Betweenness centrality ranks the importance of nodes by their participation in all shortest paths of the network. Therefore computing exact betweenness values is impractical in large networks. For static networks, approximation based on randomly sampled paths has been shown to be significantly faster in practice. However, for dynamic networks, no approximation algorithm for betweenness centrality is known that improves on static recomputation. We address this deficit by proposing two incremental approximation algorithms (for weighted and unweighted connected graphs) which provide a provable guarantee on the absolute approximation error. Processing batches of edge insertions, our algorithms yield significant speedups up to a factor of $10^4$ compared to restarting the approximation. This is enabled by investing memory to store and efficiently update shortest paths. As a building block, we also propose an asymptotically faster algorithm for updating the SSSP problem in unweighted graphs. Our experimental study shows that our algorithms are the first to make in-memory computation of a betweenness ranking practical for million-edge semi-dynamic networks. Moreover, our results show that the accuracy is even better than the theoretical guarantees in terms of absolutes errors and the rank of nodes is well preserved, in particular for those with high betweenness.

Abstract:
Random geometric networks are graphs consisting of a set of nodes placed according to a point process in some domain $\mathcal{{V}}\subseteq\mathbb{R}^{d}$ mutually coupled with a probability dependent on their Euclidean separation. We consider the well established `betweenness' centrality measure, which quantifies how often the shortest paths in the network contain a given node, deriving an expression for the \textit{expected} betweenness of a node placed within a super dense random geometric network drawn inside a disk. We confirm this with numerical simulations, and discuss the importance of the formula for cluster head node election and boundary detection in wireless ad hoc networks.

Abstract:
We study the betweenness centrality of fractal and non-fractal scale-free network models as well as real networks. We show that the correlation between degree and betweenness centrality $C$ of nodes is much weaker in fractal network models compared to non-fractal models. We also show that nodes of both fractal and non-fractal scale-free networks have power law betweenness centrality distribution $P(C)\sim C^{-\delta}$. We find that for non-fractal scale-free networks $\delta = 2$, and for fractal scale-free networks $\delta = 2-1/d_{B}$, where $d_{B}$ is the dimension of the fractal network. We support these results by explicit calculations on four real networks: pharmaceutical firms (N=6776), yeast (N=1458), WWW (N=2526), and a sample of Internet network at AS level (N=20566), where $N$ is the number of nodes in the largest connected component of a network. We also study the crossover phenomenon from fractal to non-fractal networks upon adding random edges to a fractal network. We show that the crossover length $\ell^{*}$, separating fractal and non-fractal regimes, scales with dimension $d_{B}$ of the network as $p^{-1/d_{B}}$, where $p$ is the density of random edges added to the network. We find that the correlation between degree and betweenness centrality increases with $p$.

Abstract:
Betweenness centrality is an essential index for analysis of complex networks. However, the calculation of betweenness centrality is quite time-consuming and the fastest known algorithm uses time and space for weighted networks, where and are the number of nodes and edges in the network, respectively. By inserting virtual nodes into the weighted edges and transforming the shortest path problem into a breadth-first search (BFS) problem, we propose an algorithm that can compute the betweenness centrality in time for integer-weighted networks, where is the average weight of edges and is the average degree in the network. Considerable time can be saved with the proposed algorithm when , indicating that it is suitable for lightly weighted large sparse networks. A similar concept of virtual node transformation can be used to calculate other shortest path based indices such as closeness centrality, graph centrality, stress centrality, and so on. Numerical simulations on various randomly generated networks reveal that it is feasible to use the proposed algorithm in large network analysis.

Abstract:
We analyze whether preferential attachment in scientific coauthorship networks is different for authors with different forms of centrality. Using a complete database for the scientific specialty of research about "steel structures," we show that betweenness centrality of an existing node is a significantly better predictor of preferential attachment by new entrants than degree or closeness centrality. During the growth of a network, preferential attachment shifts from (local) degree centrality to betweenness centrality as a global measure. An interpretation is that supervisors of PhD projects and postdocs broker between new entrants and the already existing network, and thus become focal to preferential attachment. Because of this mediation, scholarly networks can be expected to develop differently from networks which are predicated on preferential attachment to nodes with high degree centrality.

Abstract:
By considering the eigenratio of the Laplacian of the connection graph as synchronizability measure, we propose a procedure for weighting dynamical networks to enhance theirsynchronizability. The method is based on node and edge betweenness centrality measures and is tested on artificially const ructed scale-free, Watts-Strogatz and random networks as well as on some real-world graphs. It is also numerically shown that the same procedure could be used to enhance the phase synchronizability of networks of nonidentical oscillators.