Abstract:
In order to circumvent the loss of solid material through radial drift towards the central star, the trapping of dust inside persistent vortices in protoplanetary discs has often been suggested as a process that can eventually lead to planetesimal formation. Although a few special cases have been discussed, exhaustive studies of possible quasi-steady configurations available for dust-laden vortices and their stability have yet to be undertaken, thus their viability or otherwise as locations for the gravitational instability to take hold and seed planet formation is unclear. In this paper we generalise and extend the well known Kida solution to obtain a series of steady state solutions with varying vorticity and dust density distributions in their cores, in the limit of perfectly coupled dust and gas. We then present a local stability analysis of these configurations, considering perturbations localised on streamlines. Typical parametric instabilities found have growthrates of $~0.05\Omega_P$, where $\Omega_P$ is the angular velocity at the centre of the vortex. Models with density excess can exhibit many narrow parametric instability bands while those with a concentrated vorticity source display internal shear which significantly affects their stability. However, the existence of these parametric instabilities may not necessarily prevent the possibility of dust accumulation in vortices.

Abstract:
Large-scale persistent vortices are known to form easily in 2D disks via the Rossby wave or the baroclinic instability. In 3D, however, their formation and stability is a complex issue and still a matter of debate. We study the formation of vortices by the Rossby wave instability in a stratified inviscid disk and describe their three dimensional structure, stability and long term evolution. Numerical simulations are performed using a fully compressible hydrodynamical code based on a second order finite volume method. We assume a perfect gas law and a non-homentropic adiabatic flow.The Rossby wave instability is found to proceed in 3D in a similar way as in 2D. Vortices produced by the instability look like columns of vorticity in the whole disk thickness; the small vertical motions are related to a weak inclination of the vortex axis appearing during the development of the RWI. Vortices with aspect ratios larger than 6 are unaffected by the elliptical instability. They relax to a quasi-steady columnar structure which survives hundred of rotations while slowly migrating inward toward the star at a rate that reduces with the vortex aspect ratio. Vortices with a smaller aspect ratio are by contrast affected by the elliptic instability. Short aspect ratio vortices are completely destroyed in a few orbital periods. Vortices with an intermediate aspect ratio are partially destroyed by the elliptical instability in a region away from the mid-plane where the disk stratification is sufficiently large. Elongated Rossby vortices can survive a large number of orbital periods in protoplanetary disks in the form of vorticity columns. They could play a significant role in the evolution of the gas and the gathering of the solid particles to form planetesimals or planetary cores, a possibility that receives a renewed interest with the recent discovery of a particle trap in the disk of Oph IRS48.

Abstract:
We study the stability of the vortex in a 2D model of continuous compressible media in a uniformly rotating reference frame. As it is known, the axisymmetric vortex in a fixed reference frame is stable with respect to asymmetric perturbations for the solution of the 2D incompressible Euler equations and basically instable for compressible Euler equations. We show that the situation is quite different for a compressible axisymmetric vortex in a rotating reference frame. First, we consider special solutions with linear profile of velocity (or with spatially-uniform velocity gradients), which are important because many real vortices have similar structure near their centers. We analyze both cyclonic and anticyclonic cases and show that the stability of the solution depends only on the ratio of the vorticity to the Coriolis parameter. Using a very delicate analysis along with computer aided proof, we show that the stability of solutions can take place only for a narrow range of this ratio. Our results imply that the rotation of the coordinate frame can stabilize the compressible vortex. Further, we perform both analytical and numerical analysis of stability for real-shaped vortices.

Abstract:
We perform 3D numerical simulations in full general relativity to study the stability of rapidly rotating, supramassive neutron stars at the mass-shedding limit to dynamical collapse. We adopt an adiabatic equation of state with $\Gamma = 2$ and focus on uniformly rotating stars. We find that the onset of dynamical instability along mass-shedding sequences nearly coincides with the onset of secular instability. Unstable stars collapse to rotating black holes within about one rotation period. We also study the collapse of stable stars which have been destabilized by pressure depletion (e.g. via a phase transition) or mass accretion. In no case do we find evidence for the formation of massive disks or any ejecta around the newly formed Kerr black holes, even though the progenitors are rapidly rotating.

Abstract:
We study the dynamics of $N$ point vortices on a rotating sphere. The Hamiltonian system becomes infinite dimensional due to the non-uniform background vorticity coming from the Coriolis force. We prove that a relative equilibrium formed of latitudinal rings of identical vortices for the non-rotating sphere persists to be a relative equilibrium when the sphere rotates. We study the nonlinear stability of a polygon of planar point vortices on a rotating plane in order to approximate the corresponding relative equilibrium on the rotating sphere when the ring is close to the pole. We then perform the same study for geostrophic vortices. To end, we compare our results to the observations on the southern hemisphere atmospheric circulation.

Abstract:
The stability of periodic arrays of Mallier-Maslowe or Kelvin-Stuart vortices is discussed. We derive with the energy-Casimir stability method the nonlinear stability of this solution in the inviscid case as a function of the solution parameters and of the domain size. We exhibit the maximum size of the domain for which the vortex street is stable. By adapting a numerical time-stepping code, we calculate the linear stability of the Mallier-Maslowe solution in the presence of viscosity and compensating forcing. Finally, the results are discussed and compared to a recent experiment in fluids performed by Tabeling et al.~[Europhysics Letters {\bf 3}, 459 (1987)]. Electromagnetically driven counter-rotating vortices are unstable above a critical electric current, and give way to co-rotating vortices. The importance of the friction at the bottom of the experimental apparatus is also discussed.

Abstract:
We show how giant vortices can be stabilized in strong external potential Bose-Einstein condensates. We illustrate the formation of these vortices thanks to the relaxation Ginzburg-Landau dynamics for two typical potentials in two spatial dimensions. The giant vortex stability is studied for the particular case of the rotating cylindrical hard wall. The minimization of the perturbed energy is simplified into a one dimensional relaxation dynamics. The giant vortices can be stabilized only in a finite frequency range. Finally we obtain a curve for the minimum frequency needed to observe a giant vortex for a given nonlinearity.

Abstract:
The quantum properties of charged black holes (BHs) in 2D dilaton-Maxwell gravity (spontaneously compactified from heterotic string) with $N$ dilaton coupled scalars are studied. We first investigate 2D BHs found by McGuigan, Nappi and Yost. Kaluza-Klein reduction of 3D gravity with minimal scalars leads also to 2D dilaton-Maxwell gravity with dilaton coupled scalars and the rotating BH solution found by Ba\~nados, Teitelboim and Zanelli (BTZ) which can be also described by 2D charged dilatonic BH. Evaluating the one-loop effective action for dilaton coupled scalars in large $N$ (and s-wave approximation for BTZ case), we show that quantum-corrected BHs may evaporate or else anti-evaporate similarly to 4D Nariai BH as is observed by Bousso and Hawking. Higher modes may cause the disintegration of BH in accordance with recent observation by Bousso.

Abstract:
A previously unknown instability creates space-filling lattices of 3D vortices in linearly-stable, rotating, stratified shear flows. The instability starts from an easily-excited critical layer. The layer intensifies by drawing energy from the background shear and rolls-up into vortices that excite new critical layers and vortices. The vortices self-similarly replicate to create lattices of turbulent vortices. The vortices persist for all time. This self-replication occurs in stratified Couette flows and in the dead zones of protoplanetary disks where it can de-stabilize Keplerian flows.

Abstract:
We investigate minimal energy solutions with vortices for an interacting Bose-Einstein condensate in a rotating trap. The atoms are strongly confined along the axis of rotation z, leading to an effective 2D situation in the x-y plane. We first use a simple numerical algorithm converging to local minima of energy. Inspired by the numerical results we present a variational Ansatz in the regime where the interaction energy per particle is stronger than the quantum of vibration in the harmonic trap in the x-y plane, the so-called Thomas-Fermi regime. This Ansatz allows an easy calculation of the energy of the vortices as function of the rotation frequency of the trap; it gives a physical understanding of the stabilisation of vortices by rotation of the trap and of the spatial arrangement of vortex cores. We also present analytical results concerning the possibility of detecting vortices by a time-of-flight measurement or by interference effects. In the final section we give numerical results for a 3D configuration.