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IceCube's Neutrinos: The beginning of extra-Galactic neutrino astrophysics?  [PDF]
E. Waxman
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: The flux, spectrum and angular distribution of the excess neutrino signal detected by IceCube between 50TeV and 2PeV are inconsistent with those expected for Galactic sources. The coincidence of the excess, $E_\nu^2\Phi_\nu=3.6\pm1.2\times10^{-8}(GeV/ cm^2 sr s)$, with the Waxman-Bahcall (WB) bound, $E_\nu^2\Phi_{WB}=3.4\times10^{-8}(GeV/cm^2 sr s)$, is probably a clue to the origin of IceCube's neutrinos. The most natural explanation of this coincidence is that both the neutrino excess and the ultra-high energy, $>10^{19}$ eV, cosmic-ray (UHECR) flux are produced by the same population of cosmologically distributed sources, producing CRs, likely protons, at a similar rate, $E^2 dQ/dE=0.5\times10^{44}(erg/Mpc^3yr)$ (at z=0), across a wide range of energies, from $10^{15}$ eV to $>10^{20}$ eV, and residing in environments (such as starburst galaxies) in which CRs of rigidity $E/Z< 10^{17}$ eV lose much of their energy to pion production. Identification of the neutrino sources will allow one to identify the UHECR accelerators, to resolve open questions related to the accelerator models, and to study neutrino properties (related e.g. to flavor oscillations and coupling to gravity) with an accuracy many orders of magnitude better than is currently possible. The most promising method for identifying the sources is by association of a neutrino with an electromagnetic signal accompanying a transient event responsible for its generation. The neutrino flux that is produced within the sources, and that may thus be directly associated with transient events, may be significantly lower than the total observed neutrino flux, which may be dominated by neutrino production at the environment in which the sources reside.
Search for transient neutrino sources with IceCube  [PDF]
A. Franckowiak,for the IceCube Collaboration
Physics , 2011,
Abstract: The IceCube detector, which is embedded in the glacial ice at the geographic South Pole, is the first neutrino telescope to comprise a volume of one cubic kilometer. The search for neutrinos of astrophysical origin is among the primary goals of IceCube. Point source candidates include Galactic objects such as supernova remnants (SNRs) as well as extragalactic objects such as Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) and Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs). Offline and online searches for transient sources like GRBs and supernovae (SNe) are presented. Triggered searches use satellite measurements from Fermi, SWIFT and Konus. Complementary to the triggered offline search, an online neutrino multiplet selection allows IceCube to trigger a network of optical telescopes, which can then identify a possible electromagnetic counterpart. This allows to probe for mildly relativistic jets in SNe and hence to reveal the connection between GRBs, SNe and relativistic jets. Results from IceCube's triggered GRB search and a first limit on relativistic jets in SNe from the optical follow-up program are presented.
Estimating the contribution of Galactic sources to the diffuse neutrino flux  [PDF]
Luis A. Anchordoqui,Haim Goldberg,Thomas C. Paul,Luiz H. M. da Silva,Brian J. Vlcek
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.90.123010
Abstract: Motivated by recent IceCube observations we re-examine the idea that microquasars are high energy neutrino emitters. By stretching to the maximum the parameters of the Fermi engine we show that the nearby high-mass X-ray binary LS 5039 could accelerate protons up to above about 20 PeV. These highly relativistic protons could subsequently interact with the plasma producing neutrinos up to the maximum observed energies. After that we adopt the spatial density distribution of high-mass X-ray binaries obtained from the deep INTEGRAL Galactic plane survey and we assume LS 5039 typifies the microquasar population to demonstrate that these powerful compact sources could provide a dominant contribution to the diffuse neutrino flux recently observed by IceCube.
Gravitational lensing of transient neutrino sources by black holes  [PDF]
Ernesto F. Eiroa,Gustavo E. Romero
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1016/j.physletb.2008.04.016
Abstract: In this work we study gravitational lensing of neutrinos by Schwarzschild black holes. In particular, we analyze the case of a neutrino transient source associated with a gamma-ray burst lensed by a supermassive black hole located at the center of an interposed galaxy. We show that the primary and secondary images have an angular separation beyond the resolution of forthcoming km-scale detectors, but the signals from each image have time delays between them that in most cases are longer than the typical duration of the intrinsic events. In this way, the signal from different images can be detected as separate events coming from the very same location in the sky. This would render an event that otherwise might have had a low signal-to-noise ratio a clear detection, since the probability of a repetition of a signal from the same direction is negligible. The relativistic images are so faint and proximate that are beyond the sensitivity and resolution of the next-generation instruments.
Search for diffuse neutrino flux from astrophysical sources with MACRO  [PDF]
The MACRO Collaboration
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1016/S0927-6505(02)00190-1
Abstract: Many galactic and extragalactic astrophysical sources are currently considered promising candidates as high energy neutrino emitters. Astrophysical neutrinos can be detected as upward-going muons produced in charged-current interactions with the medium surrounding the detector. The expected neutrino fluxes from various models start to dominate on the atmospheric neutrino background at neutrino energies above some tens of TeV. We present the results of a search for an excess of high energy upward-going muons among the sample of data collected by MACRO during ~5.8 years of effective running time. No significant evidence for this signal was found. As a consequence, an upper limit on the flux of upward-going muons from high-energy neutrinos was set at the level of 1.7 10^(-14) cm^(-2) s^(-1) sr^(-1). The corresponding upper limit for the diffuse neutrino flux was evaluated assuming a neutrino power law spectrum. Our result was compared with theoretical predictions and upper limits from other experiments.
Bounds on the neutrino flux from cosmic sources of relativistic particles  [PDF]
Karl Mannheim
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1088/0954-3899/27/7/323
Abstract: In order to facilitate the identification of possible new physics signatures in neutrino telescopes, such as neutrinos from the annihilation of neutralinos or decaying relics, it is essential to gain full control over the astrophysical inventory of neutrino sources in the Universe. The total available accretion power, the extragalactic gamma ray background, and the cosmic ray proton intensity can be used to constrain astrophysical models of neutrino production in extragalactic sources. The resulting upper limit on the extragalactic muon neutrino intensity from cosmic particle accelerators combined with a reasonable minimum intensity of neutrinos due to cosmic rays stored in clusters of galaxies demark a zone of opportunity for neutrino astronomy over a broad range of energies between 100 MeV and 1 EeV. Discovery of this neutrino background would open a new era for astronomy and provide the first un-obscured view to the early Universe.
Status of High-Energy Neutrino Astronomy  [PDF]
Marek Kowalski
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/632/1/012039
Abstract: With the recent discovery of high-energy neutrinos of extra-terrestrial origin by the IceCube neutrino observatory, neutrino-astronomy is entering a new era. This review will cover currently operating open water/ice neutrino telescopes, the latest evidence for a flux of extra-terrestrial neutrinos and current efforts in the search for steady and transient neutrino point sources. Generalised constraints on potential astrophysical sources are presented, allowing to focus the hunt for the sources of the observed high-energy neutrinos.
Distortion of the ultrahigh energy cosmic ray flux from rare transient sources in inhomogeneous extragalactic magnetic fields  [PDF]
Sihem Kalli,Martin Lemoine,Kumiko Kotera
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201015688
Abstract: Detecting and characterizing the anisotropy pattern of the arrival directions of the highest energy cosmic rays are crucial steps towards the identification of their sources. We discuss a possible distortion of the cosmic ray flux induced by the anisotropic and inhomogeneous distribution of extragalactic magnetic fields in cases where sources of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays are rare transient phenomena, such as gamma-ray bursts and/or newly born magnetars. This distortion does not involve an angular deflection but the modulation of the flux related to the probability of seeing the source on an experiment lifetime. To quantify this distortion, we construct sky maps of the arrival directions of these highest energy cosmic rays for various magnetic field configurations and appeal to statistical tests proposed in the literature. We conclude that this distortion cannot affect present experiments but should be considered when performing anisotropy studies with future large-scale experiments that record as many as hundreds of events above 6x10^19 eV.
Neutrino Background Flux from Sources of Ultrahigh-Energy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei  [PDF]
Kohta Murase,John F. Beacom
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.81.123001
Abstract: Motivated by Pierre Auger Observatory results favoring a heavy nuclear composition for ultrahigh-energy (UHE) cosmic rays, we investigate implications for the cumulative neutrino background. The requirement that nuclei not be photodisintegrated constrains their interactions in sources, therefore limiting neutrino production via photomeson interactions. Assuming a $dN_{\rm CR}/dE_{\rm CR} \propto E_{\rm CR}^{-2}$ injection spectrum and photodisintegration via the giant dipole resonance, the background flux of neutrinos is lower than $E_\nu^2 \Phi_\nu \sim {10}^{-9} {\rm GeV} {\rm cm}^{-2} {\rm s}^{-1} {\rm sr}^{-1}$ if UHE nuclei ubiquitously survive in their sources. This is smaller than the analogous Waxman-Bahcall flux for UHE protons by about one order of magnitude, and is below the projected IceCube sensitivity. If IceCube detects a neutrino background, it could be due to other sources, e.g., hadronuclear interactions of lower-energy cosmic rays; if it does not, this supports our strong restrictions on the properties of sources of UHE nuclei.
Some possible sources of IceCube TeV-PeV neutrino events  [PDF]
Sarira Sahu,Luis Salvador Miranda
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1140/epjc/s10052-015-3519-1
Abstract: The IceCube Collaboration has observed 37 neutrino events in the energy range $30\, TeV\leq E_{\nu} \leq 2$ PeV and the sources of these neutrinos are unknown. Here we have shown that positions of 12 high energy blazars and the position of the FR-I galaxy Centaurus A, coincide within the error circles of ten IceCube events, the later being in the error circle of the highest energy event so far observed by IceCube. Two of the above blazars are simultaneously within the error circles of the Telescope Array hotspot and one IceCube event. We found that the blazar H2356-309 is within the error circles of three IceCube events. We propose that photohadronic interaction of the Fermi accelerated high energy protons with the synchrotron/SSC background photons in the nuclear region of these high energy blazars and AGN are probably responsible for some of the observed IceCube events.
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