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 Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1086/319726 Abstract: We present the results of X-ray imaging and spectroscopic analysis of a sample of Seyfert 2 galaxies that contain starbursts, based on their optical and UV characteristics. These composite galaxies exhibit extended, soft, thermal X-ray emission, which we attribute to their starburst components. Comparing their X-ray and far-infrared properties with ordinary Seyfert and starburst galaxies, we identify the spectral characteristics of their various intrinsic emission sources. The observed far-infrared emission of the composite galaxies may be associated almost exclusively with star formation, rather than the active nucleus. The ratio of the hard X-ray luminosity to the far-infrared and [O III] 5007 luminosity distinguishes most of these composite galaxies from pure'' Seyfert 2 galaxies, while their total observed hard X-ray luminosity distinguishes them from pure'' starbursts. The hard nuclear X-ray source is generally heavily absorbed (N_H > 10^{23} cm^{-2}) in the composite galaxies. Based on these results, we suggest that the interstellar medium of the nuclear starburst is a significant source of absorption. The majority of the sample are located in groups or are interacting with other galaxies, which may trigger the starburst or allow rapid mass infall to the central black hole, or both. We conclude that starbursts are energetically important in a significant fraction of active galaxies, and starbursts and active galactic nuclei may be part of a common evolutionary sequence.
 Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1086/323958 Abstract: Far-infrared flux densities are newly extracted from the IRAS database for the RSA and CfA complete samples of Seyfert galaxies. These data are used to classify the Seyfert galaxies into those where the far-infrared continuum emission is dominated by the active galactic nucleus (AGN), circumnuclear starburst, or host galaxy. While AGN-dominant objects consist of comparable numbers of Seyfert 1 and 2 galaxies, starburst- and host-dominant objects consist preferentially of Seyfert 2 galaxies. Thus, in addition to the dusty torus, the circumnuclear starburst region and host galaxy are important in hiding the broad-line region. Morphologically, starburst-dominant Seyfert galaxies are of later types and more strongly interacting than AGN-dominant Seyfert galaxies. In a later-type galaxy, the AGN central engine has a lower Eddington luminosity, and the gaseous content is higher. The gas is efficiently supplied to the starburst via a galaxy-galaxy interaction. Morphologies of host-dominant Seyfert galaxies are of various types. Since starbursts in Seyfert galaxies are older than those in classical starburst galaxies, we propose an evolution from starburst to starburst-dominant Seyfert to host-dominant Seyfert for a late-type galaxy. An evolution from AGN-dominant Seyfert to host-dominant Seyfert is proposed for an early-type galaxy. These sequences have durations of a few x 10^8 yr and occur repeatedly within a galaxy during its evolution from a late type to an early type.
 Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1086/317792 Abstract: We use the CO band at 2.3 micron to constrain the populations of young stars in the central regions of Seyfert galaxies. We report new CO band spectroscopy of 46 Seyfert galaxies. In most cases, the observed CO indices appear diluted by the presence of a non-stellar component (most likely, warm dust surrounding the active nucleus). We used JHKL aperture photometry to estimate the non-stellar contribution at 2.3 micron. We successfully corrected the CO band for the dilution for 16 galaxies which were not dominated by the non-stellar component. Comparing with CO indices measured in elliptical and purely starbursting galaxies, we find no evidence for strong starbursts in the majority of these galaxies.
 Physics , 2001, Abstract: We present a simple population synthesis scheme which recognizes composite starburst+Seyfert 2 nuclei from a few easy-to-obtain optical measurements. Composite systems seem to evolve towards less luminous Seyfert 2's which do not harbor detectable circum-nuclear starbursts. We encourage applications of this cheap diagnostic tool to large samples of Seyfert 2's, as well as its extension to other activity classes, in order to test and refine this evolutionary scenario.
 Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201015644 Abstract: The Fermi/LAT collaboration recently reported the detection of starburt galaxies in the high energy gamma-ray domain, as well as radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 objects. Motivated by the presence of sources close to the location of composite starburst/Seyfert 2 galaxies in the first year Fermi/LAT catalogue, we aim at studying high energy gamma-ray emission from such objects, and at disentangling the emission of starburst and Seyfert activity. We analysed 1.6 years of Fermi/LAT data from NGC 1068 and NGC 4945, which count among the brightest Seyfert 2 galaxies. We search for potential variability of the high energy signal, and derive a spectrum of these sources. We also analyse public INTEGRAL IBIS/ISGRI data over the last seven years to derive their hard X-ray spectrum. We find an excess of high energy gamma-rays of 8.3 sigma and 9.2 sigma for 1FGL J0242.7+0007 and 1FGL J1305.4-4928, which are found to be consistent with the position of the Seyfert 2 galaxies NGC 1068 and NGC 4945, respectively. The energy spectrum of the sources can be described by a power law with a photon index of Gamma=2.31 \pm 0.13 for NGC 1068, while for NGC 4945, we obtain a photon index of Gamma=2.31 \pm 0.10. For both sources, we detect no significant variability nor any indication of a curvature of the spectrum. We discuss the origin of the high energy emission of these objects in the context of Seyfert or starburst activity. While the emission of NGC 4945 is consistent with starburst activity, that of NGC 1068 is an order of magnitude above expectations, suggesting dominant emission from the active nucleus. We show that a leptonic scenario can account for the multi-wavelength spectral energy distribution of NGC 1068.
 Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1086/306154 Abstract: We present and discuss HST (WFPC2 and FOC) images and UV GHRS spectra plus ground-based near UV through to near IR spectra of three Seyfert 2 nuclei (NGC 7130, NGC 5135 and IC 3639). These galaxies, together to Mrk 477, were selected from a bigger sample that comprises the 20 brightest Seyfert 2 nuclei, with the goal to study the origin of the UV-optical-near IR featureless continuum in Seyfert 2 nuclei. These four galaxies have bolometric luminosities, as computed with the four IRAS bands, of 10^11 Lsol. They are close enough to be resolved with HST the nuclear zone. This makes these Seyfert 2 galaxies benchmarks to study the Starburst-AGN connection in more distant galaxies. The data provide direct evidence of the existence of a central nuclear starburst that dominates the UV light, and that seem to be responsible for the origin of the so called featureless continuum. These starbursts are dusty and compact. They have sizes (from less than 100 pc to a few hundred pc) much smaller and closer to the nucleus than that seen in the prototype Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068. The bolometric luminosity of these starbursts is similar to the estimated bolometric luminosities of their obscured Seyfert 1 nuclei, and thus they contribute in the same amount to the overall energetics of these galaxies.
 Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.19268.x Abstract: Narrow Line Seyfert 1 (NLSy1) galaxies are a peculiar class of type 1 AGN (BLSy1). The X-ray properties of individual objects belonging to this class are often extreme and associated with accretion at high Eddington ratios. Here we present a study on a sample of 14 NLSy1 galaxies selected at hard X-rays (> 20 keV) from the fourth INTEGRAL/IBIS catalogue. The 20-100 keV IBIS spectra show hard X-ray photon indeces flatly distributed (Gamma_{20-100 keV} ranging from ~1.3 to ~3.6) with an average value of = 2.3+/-0.7, compatible with a sample of hard X-ray BLSy1 average slope. Instead, NLSy1 show steeper spectral indeces with respect to BLSy1 when broad-band spectra are considered. Indeed, we combine XMM-Newton and Swift/XRT with INTEGRAL/IBIS data sets to obtain a wide energy spectral coverage (0.3-100 keV). A constraint on the high energy cut-off and on the reflection component is achieved only in one source, Swift J2127.4+5654 (E_{cut-off} ~ 50 keV, R=1.0{+0.5}_{-0.4}). Hard X-ray selected NLSy1 do not display particularly strong soft excess emission, while absorption fully or partially covering the continuum is often measured as well as Fe line emission features. Variability is a common trait in this sample, both at X-ray and at hard X-rays. The fraction of NLSy1 in the hard X-ray sky is likely to be ~15%, in agreement with estimates derived in optically selected NLSy1 samples. We confirm the association of NLSy1 with small black hole masses with a peak at 10^{7} M_{dot} in the distribution, however hard X-ray NLSy1 seem to occupy the lower tail of the Eddington ratios distribution of classical NLSy1.
 Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1086/318295 Abstract: We report the results of a spectroscopic investigation of a sample of 20 of the brightest type 2 Seyfert nuclei. Our goal is to search for the direct spectroscopic signature of massive stars, and thereby probe the role of circumnuclear starbursts in the Seyfert phenomenon. The method used is based on the detection of the higher order Balmer lines and HeI lines in absorption and the Wolf-Rayet feature at $\sim$4680 \AA in emission. These lines are strong indicators of the presence of young (a few Myrs) and intermediate-age (a few 100 Myrs) stellar populations. In over half the sample, we have detected HeI and/or strong stellar absorption features in the high-order (near-UV) Balmer series together with relatively weak lines from an old stellar population. In three others we detect a broad emission feature near 4680 \AA that is most plausibly ascribed to a population of Wolf-Rayet stars (the evolved descendants of the most massive stars). We therefore conclude that the blue and near-UV light of over half of the sample is dominated by young and/or intermediate age stars. The young'' Seyfert 2's have have larger far-IR luminosities, cooler mid/far-IR colors, and smaller [OIII]/H$\beta$ flux ratios than the old'' ones. These differences are consistent with a starburst playing a significant energetic role in the former class. We consider the possibility that there may be two distinct sub-classes of Seyfert 2 nuclei (starbursts'' and hidden BLR''). However, the fact that hidden BLRs have been found in three of the young'' nuclei argues against this, and suggests that nuclear starbursts may be a more general part of the Seyfert phenomenon.
 Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1086/301220 Abstract: The nearby barred spiral galaxy NGC 1672 shows dramatic starburst activity and may also host a Seyfert 2 nucleus. We present new X-ray observations that set constraints on starburst and Seyfert activity in NGC 1672. Two ROSAT HRI exposures, taken in 1992 and 1997, are used to investigate long-term variability of the known X-ray sources and to search for new sources of X-ray emission. We find large-amplitude (about 69%) variability from X-3, one of the off-nuclear sources located near an end of the galactic bar. X-3 has a peak observed 0.2-2.0 keV luminosity of about 2.5 x 10^{39} erg/s, and it is probably a luminous X-ray binary or young supernova remnant. We do not observe variability of the nuclear source X-1 or the strong off-nuclear source X-2. Our analyses also reveal two new off-nuclear sources, one of which is associated with a bright region along a spiral arm, and we find evidence for large-scale diffuse X-ray emission throughout part of the disk of NGC 1672. Furthermore, we use ASCA data taken in 1995 to constrain the hard X-ray properties of NGC 1672. While the nuclear source X-1 is the dominant soft X-ray source in NGC 1672, we find that the bulk of the 2-10 keV and 5-10 keV emission is spatially coincident with the off-nuclear source X-3, giving it an apparent 0.2-8 keV luminosity of about 6 x 10^{39} erg/s. A power-law plus Raymond-Smith model provides an acceptable fit to the full-band ASCA spectra. We do not find any evidence for a luminous but absorbed nuclear X-ray source. If there is a luminous Seyfert 2 nucleus in NGC 1672, it must be obscured by a `Compton-thick' torus with a column density of > 2 x 10^{24} cm^{-2}.
 Revista mexicana de astronomía y astrofísica , 2009, Abstract: This is a second study in an ongoing work aimed to analyze the star formation activity and its relation with the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAHs) emission. In this way, we have performed a study about the correlation between the ux of the 7.7 -m PAH band and its equivalent width, with the luminosities and uxes observed in JHK photometric bands, IRAS 12, 25, 60 and 100-m, the radio emission at 1.4GHz and X-ray at 2{10 keV, for a sample composed of Seyfert 1-2, QSOs, Quasars, Starburst, and ULIRGs. The results found let us discriminate between objects with more star formation activity from others with more AGN in uence.
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