Abstract:
For any quantum algorithm operating on pure states we prove that the presence of multi-partite entanglement, with a number of parties that increases unboundedly with input size, is necessary if the quantum algorithm is to offer an exponential speed-up over classical computation. Furthermore we prove that the algorithm can be classically efficiently simulated to within a prescribed tolerance \eta even if a suitably small amount of global entanglement (depending on \eta) is present. We explicitly identify the occurrence of increasing multi-partite entanglement in Shor's algorithm. Our results do not apply to quantum algorithms operating on mixed states in general and we discuss the suggestion that an exponential computational speed-up might be possible with mixed states in the total absence of entanglement. Finally, despite the essential role of entanglement for pure state algorithms, we argue that it is nevertheless misleading to view entanglement as a key resource for quantum computational power.

Abstract:
We investigate the entanglement features of the quantum states employed in quantum algorithms. In particular, we analyse the multipartite entanglement properties in the Deutsch-Jozsa, Grover and Simon algorithms. Our results show that for these algorithms most instances involve multipartite entanglement.

Abstract:
We discuss the fundamental role of entanglement as the essential nonclassical feature providing the computational speed-up in the known quantum algorithms. We review the construction of the Fourier transform on an Abelian group and the principles underlying the fast Fourier transform algorithm. We describe the implementation of the FFT algorithm for the group of integers modulo 2^n in the quantum context, showing how the group-theoretic formalism leads to the standard quantum network and identifying the property of entanglement that gives rise to the exponential speedup (compared to the classical FFT). Finally we outline the use of the Fourier transform in extracting periodicities, which underlies its utility in the known quantum algorithms.

Abstract:
The article we consider the influence of parameters entanglement on the quantum algorithms, in particular influence of partial entanglement for quantum teleportation. The simulation results presented in chart form.

Abstract:
We argue that entanglement is the essential non-classical ingredient which provides the computational speed-up in quantum algorithms as compared to algorithms based on the processes of classical physics.

Abstract:
We shed new light on entanglement measures in multipartite quantum systems by taking a computational-complexity approach toward quantifying quantum entanglement with two familiar notions--approximability and distinguishability. Built upon the formal treatment of partial separability, we measure the complexity of an entangled quantum state by determining (i) how hard to approximate it from a fixed classical state and (ii) how hard to distinguish it from all partially separable states. We further consider the Kolmogorovian-style descriptive complexity of approximation and distinction of partial entanglement.

Abstract:
The work that we present in this thesis tries to be at the crossover of quantum information science, quantum many-body physics, and quantum field theory. We use tools from these three fields to analyze problems that arise in the interdisciplinary intersection. More concretely, in Chapter 1 we consider the irreversibility of renormalization group flows from a quantum information perspective by using majorization theory and conformal field theory. In Chapter 2 we compute the entanglement of a single copy of a bipartite quantum system for a variety of models by using techniques from conformal field theory and Toeplitz matrices. The entanglement entropy of the so-called Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick model is computed in Chapter 3, showing analogies with that of (1+1)-dimensional quantum systems. In Chapter 4 we apply the ideas of scaling of quantum correlations in quantum phase transitions to the study of quantum algorithms, focusing on Shor's factorization algorithm and quantum algorithms by adiabatic evolution solving an NP-complete and the searching problems. Also, in Chapter 5 we use techniques originally inspired by condensed-matter physics to develop classical simulations, using the so-called matrix product states, of an adiabatic quantum algorithm. Finally, in Chapter 6 we consider the behavior of some families of quantum algorithms from the perspective of majorization theory. The structure within each Chapter is such that the last section always summarizes the basic results. Some general conclusions and possible future directions are briefly discussed in Chapter 7. Appendix A, Appendix B and Appendix C respectively deal with some basic notions on majorization theory, conformal field theory, and classical complexity theory.

Abstract:
The speed-up provided by quantum algorithms with respect to their classical counterparts is at the origin of scientific interest in quantum computation. However, the fundamental reasons for such a speed-up are not yet completely understood and deserve further attention. In this context, the classical simulation of quantum algorithms is a useful tool that can help us in gaining insight. Starting from the study of general conditions for classical simulation, we highlight several important differences between two non-equivalent classes of quantum algorithms. We investigate their performance under realistic conditions by quantitatively studying their resilience with respect to static noise. This latter refers to errors affecting the inital preparation of the register used to run an algorithm. We also compare the evolution of the entanglement involved in the different computational processes.

Abstract:
The quantum entanglement is one of non-classical phenomena of quantum mechanics. This paper is started by reviewing the entanglement and entanglement state, and then focuses on the essence of entanglement and the notion of non-locality. We discuss the fundamental role of entanglement as the essential non-classical feature providing the computational speed-up in the known quantum algorithms in the last part of this paper.

Abstract:
'Tis said, to know others is to be learned, to know oneself, wise - I demonstrate that it could be more fundamental than knowing the rest of nature, by applying classical computational principles and engineering hindsight to derive and explain quantum entanglement, state space formalism and the statistical nature of quantum mechanics. I show that an entangled photon pair is literally no more than a 1-bit hologram, that the quantum state formalism is completely derivable from general considerations of representation of physical information, and that both the probabilistic aspects of quantum theory and the constancy of h are exactly predicted by the thermodynamics of representation, without precluding a fundamental, relative difference in spatial scale between non-colocated observers, leading to logical foundations of relativity and cosmology that show the current thinking in that field to be simplistic and erroneous.