Abstract:
The effect of salt concentration Cs on the critical shear rate required for the onset of shear thickening and apparent relaxation time of the shear-thickened phase, has been investigated systematically for dilute CTAB/NaSal solutions. Experimental data suggest a self-similar behavior of the critical shear rate and relaxation time as functions of Cs. Specifically, the former ~ Cs^(-6) whereas the latter ~ Cs^(6) such that an effective Weissenberg number for the onset of the shear thickened phase is only weakly dependent on Cs. A procedure has been developed to collapse the apparent shear viscosity versus shear rate data obtained for various values of Cs into a single master curve. The effect of Cs on the elastic modulus and mesh size of the shear-induced gel phase for different surfactant concentrations is discussed. Experiments performed using different flow cells (Couette and cone-and-plate) show that the critical shear rate, relaxation time and the maximum viscosity attained are geometry-independent. The elastic modulus of the gel phase inferred indirectly by employing simplified hydrodynamic instability analysis of a sheared gel-fluid interface is in qualitative agreement with that predicted for an entangled phase of living polymers. A qualitative mechanism that combines the effect of Cs on average micelle length and Debye parameter with shear-induced configurational changes of rod-like micelles is proposed to rationalize the self-similarity of SIS formation.

Abstract:
We present a minimal model for spatiotemporal oscillation and rheochaos in shear-thickening complex fluids at zero Reynolds number. In the model, a tendency towards inhomogeneous flows in the form of shear bands combines with a slow structural dynamics, modelled by delayed stress relaxation. Using Fourier-space numerics, we study the nonequilibrium `phase diagram' of the fluid as a function of a steady mean (spatially averaged) stress, and of the relaxation time for structural relaxation. We find several distinct regions of periodic behavior (oscillating bands, travelling bands, and more complex oscillations) and also regions of spatiotemporal rheochaos. A low-dimensional truncation of the model retains the important physical features of the full model (including rheochaos) despite the suppression of sharply defined interfaces between shear bands. Our model maps onto the FitzHugh-Nagumo model for neural network dynamics, with an unusual form of long-range coupling.

Abstract:
Aqueous and brine suspensions of corn starch show striking discontinuous shear thickening. We have found that a suspension shear-thickened throughout may remain in the jammed thickened state as the strain rate is reduced, but an unjamming front may propagate from any unjammed regions. Transient shear thickening is observed at strain rates below the thickening threshold, and above it the stress fluctuates. The jammed shear-thickened state may persist to low strain rates, with stresses resembling sliding friction and effective viscosity inversely proportional to the strain rate. At the thickening threshold fluid pressure depins the suspension's contact lines on solid boundaries so that it slides, shears, dilates and jams. In oil suspensions lubrication and complete wetting of confining surfaces eliminate contact line forces and prevent jamming and shear thickening, as does addition of immiscible liquid surfactant to brine suspensions. Starch suspensions in glycerin-water solutions, viscous but incompletely wetting, have intermediate properties.

Abstract:
We present a large range of experimental data concerning the influence of surfactants on the well-known Landau-Levich-Derjaguin experiment where a liquid film is generated by pulling a solid plate out of a bath. The thickness h of the film was measured as a function of the pulling velocity V for different kind of surfactant and at various concentrations. Measuring the thickening factor $\alpha=h/h_{LLD}$, where hLLD is obtained for a pure liquid, in a wide range of capillary ($Ca=\eta V/\gamma$), two regimes of constant thickening can be identified: at small capillary number, $\alpha$ is large due to a confinement and surface elasticity (or Marangoni) effects and at large Ca, $\alpha$ is slightly higher than unity, due to surface viscous effects. At intermediate Ca, $\alpha$ decreases as Ca increases along a "dynamic transition". In the case of non-ionic surfactants, the dynamic transition occurs at a fixed Ca, independently of the surfactant concentration, while for ionic surfactants, the dynamic transition depends on the concentration due to the existence of an electrostatic barrier. The control of physico-chemical parameters allowed us to elucidate the nature of the dynamic transition and to relate it to surface rheology.

Abstract:
Shear thickening, i.e. the increase of the viscosity with increasing shear rate as it occurs in dense colloidal dispersions and polymeric fluids is an intriguing phenomenon with a considerable potential for technical applications. The theoretical description of this phenomenon is patterned after the thermodynamic and mesoscopic modeling of the orientational dynamics and the flow behavior of liquid crystals in the isotropic and nematic phases, where the theoretical basis is well-established. Even there the solutions of the relevant equations recently yielded surprises: not only stable flow alignment and a periodic behavior (tumbling) are found as response to an imposed stationary shear flow but also irregular and chaotic dynamics occurs for certain parameter ranges. To treat shear-thickening fluids, a non-linear Maxwell model equation for the symmetric traceless part of the stress tensor has been proposed in analogy to the equations obeyed by the alignment tensor of nematics. The fluid-solid transition is formally analogous to the isotropic-nematic transition. In addition to shear-thickening and shear-thinning fluids, substances with yield stress can be modeled. Furthermore, periodic stick-slip-like motions and also chaotic behavior are found. In the latter cases, the instantaneous entropy production is not always positive. Yet it is comforting that its long-time average is in accord with the second law.

Abstract:
We study the rheology of cornstarch suspensions, a non-Brownian particle system that exhibits discontinuous shear thickening. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the local properties of the flow are obtained by the determination of local velocity profiles and concentrations in a Couette cell. For low rotational rates, we observe shear localization characteristic of yield stress fluids. When the overall shear rate is increased, the width of the sheared region increases. The discontinuous shear thickening is found to set in at the end of this shear localization regime when all of the fluid is sheared: the existence of a nonflowing region, thus, seems to prevent or delay shear thickening. Macroscopic observations using different measurement geometries show that the smaller the gap of the shear cell, the lower the shear rate at which shear thickening sets in. We, thus, propose that the discontinuous shear thickening of cornstarch suspensions is a consequence of dilatancy: the system under flow attempts to dilate but instead undergoes a jamming transition, because it is confined. This proposition is confirmed by an independent measurement of the dilation of the suspension as a function of the shear rate. It is also explains the MRI observations: when flow is localized, the nonflowing region plays the role of a "dilatancy reservoir" which allows the material to be sheared without jamming.

Abstract:
Suspensions are of wide interest and form the basis for many smart fluids. For most suspensions, the viscosity decreases with increasing shear rate, i.e. they shear thin. Few are reported to do the opposite, i.e. shear thicken, despite the longstanding expectation that shear thickening is a generic type of suspension behavior. Here we resolve this apparent contradiction. We demonstrate that shear thickening can be masked by a yield stress and can be recovered when the yield stress is decreased below a threshold. We show the generality of this argument and quantify the threshold in rheology experiments where we control yield stresses arising from a variety of sources, such as attractions from particle surface interactions, induced dipoles from applied electric and magnetic fields, as well as confinement of hard particles at high packing fractions. These findings open up possibilities for the design of smart suspensions that combine shear thickening with electro- or magnetorheological response.

Abstract:
In this paper we consider the entire weak solutions $u$ of the equations for stationary flows of shear thickening fluids in the plane and prove Liouville theorems under the conditions on the finiteness of energy and under the integrability condition of the solutions.

Abstract:
In this paper we consider the entire weak solutions of the equations for stationary flows of shear thickening fluids in the plane and prove Liouville theorem under the global boundedness condition of velocity fields.

Abstract:
We report experimental observation of the shear thickening oscillation, i.e. the spontaneous macroscopic oscillation in the shear flow of severe shear thickening fluid. The shear thickening oscillation is caused by the interplay between the fluid dynamics and the shear thickening, and has been predicted theoretically by the present authors using a phenomenological fluid dynamics model for the dilatant fluid, but never been reported experimentally. Using a density-matched starch-water mixture, in the cylindrical shear flow of a few centimeters flow width, we observed strong vibrations of the frequency around 20 Hz, which is consistent with our theoretical prediction.