Abstract:
Quantum algorithms for scientific computing require modules implementing fundamental functions, such as the square root, the logarithm, and others. We require algorithms that have a well-controlled numerical error, that are uniformly scalable and reversible (unitary), and that can be implemented efficiently. We present quantum algorithms and circuits for computing the square root, the natural logarithm, and arbitrary fractional powers. We provide performance guarantees in terms of their worst-case accuracy and cost. We further illustrate their performance by providing tests comparing them to the respective floating point implementations found in widely used numerical software.

Abstract:
Recently, researchers have applied genetic algorithms (GAs) to address some problems in quantum computation. Also, there has been some works in the designing of genetic algorithms based on quantum theoretical concepts and techniques. The so called Quantum Evolutionary Programming has two major sub-areas: Quantum Inspired Genetic Algorithms (QIGAs) and Quantum Genetic Algorithms (QGAs). The former adopts qubit chromosomes as representations and employs quantum gates for the search of the best solution. The later tries to solve a key question in this field: what GAs will look like as an implementation on quantum hardware? As we shall see, there is not a complete answer for this question. An important point for QGAs is to build a quantum algorithm that takes advantage of both the GA and quantum computing parallelism as well as true randomness provided by quantum computers. In the first part of this paper we present a survey of the main works in GAs plus quantum computing including also our works in this area. Henceforth, we review some basic concepts in quantum computation and GAs and emphasize their inherent parallelism. Next, we review the application of GAs for learning quantum operators and circuit design. Then, quantum evolutionary programming is considered. Finally, we present our current research in this field and some perspectives.

Abstract:
an automatic synthesis method based on the application of genetic algorithms (gas) is described for the synthesis of voltage followers (vfs), which are designed using cmos integrated circuit technology of 0.35μm. it is shown the usefulness of the nullor element to model the ideal behavior of the vf, and to codify its topology using a chromosome which is divided into four genes: gene of small-signal (genss), gene of synthesis of the mosfet (gensmos), gene of bias (genbias), and gene of synthesis of current mirrors (gencm); this last one to synthesize ideal current sources used in the biasing of the circuits with cmos current mirrors. the proposed synthesis method has been programmed in matlab, and it uses t-spice to evaluate the fitness of the vfs at the transistor level of abstraction. in this manner, the method selects the more appropriated vfs by elitism. finally, it is shown the behavior of the ga to synthesize practical vfs. as a result, it is shown the synthesis of eight cmos compatible vfs, and their applications are briefly discussed.

Abstract:
This paper explores several aspects of the adiabatic quantum computation model. We first show a way that directly maps any arbitrary circuit in the standard quantum computing model to an adiabatic algorithm of the same depth. Specifically, we look for a smooth time-dependent Hamiltonian whose unique ground state slowly changes from the initial state of the circuit to its final state. Since this construction requires in general an n-local Hamiltonian, we will study whether approximation is possible using previous results on ground state entanglement and perturbation theory. Finally we will point out how the adiabatic model can be relaxed in various ways to allow for 2-local partially adiabatic algorithms as well as 2-local holonomic quantum algorithms.

Abstract:
The quantum Fourier transform (QFT), a quantum analog of the classical Fourier transform, has been shown to be a powerful tool in developing quantum algorithms. However, in classical computing there is another class of unitary transforms, the wavelet transforms, which are every bit as useful as the Fourier transform. Wavelet transforms are used to expose the multi-scale structure of a signal and are likely to be useful for quantum image processing and quantum data compression. In this paper, we derive efficient, complete, quantum circuits for two representative quantum wavelet transforms, the quantum Haar and quantum Daubechies $D^{(4)}$ transforms. Our approach is to factor the operators for these transforms into direct sums, direct products and dot products of unitary matrices. In so doing, we find that permutation matrices, a particular class of unitary matrices, play a pivotal role. Surprisingly, we find that operations that are easy and inexpensive to implement classically are not always easy and inexpensive to implement quantum mechanically, and vice versa. In particular, the computational cost of performing certain permutation matrices is ignored classically because they can be avoided explicitly. However, quantum mechanically, these permutation operations must be performed explicitly and hence their cost enters into the full complexity measure of the quantum transform. We consider the particular set of permutation matrices arising in quantum wavelet transforms and develop efficient quantum circuits that implement them. This allows us to design efficient, complete quantum circuits for the quantum wavelet transform.

Abstract:
We propose genetic algorithms, which are robust optimization techniques inspired by natural selection, to enhance the versatility of digital quantum simulations. In this sense, we show that genetic algorithms can be employed to increase the fidelity and optimize the resource requirements of digital quantum simulation protocols, while adapting naturally to the experimental constraints. Furthermore, this method allows us to reduce not only digital errors, but also experimental errors in quantum gates. Indeed, by adding ancillary qubits, we design a modular gate made out of imperfect gates, whose fidelity is larger than the fidelity of any of the constituent gates. Finally, we prove that the proposed modular gates are resilient against different gate errors.

Abstract:
Replication of DNA and synthesis of proteins are studied from the view-point of quantum database search. Identification of a base-pairing with a quantum query gives a natural (and first ever) explanation of why living organisms have 4 nucleotide bases and 20 amino acids. It is amazing that these numbers arise as solutions to an optimisation problem. Components of the DNA structure which implement Grover's algorithm are identified, and a physical scenario is presented for the execution of the quantum algorithm. It is proposed that enzymes play a crucial role in maintaining quantum coherence of the process. Experimental tests that can verify this scenario are pointed out.

Abstract:
Numerical optimization methods such as hillclimbing and simulated annealing have been applied to search for highly entangled multi-qubit states. Here the genetic algorithm is applied to this optimization problem -- to search not only for highly entangled states, but also for the corresponding quantum circuits creating these states. Simple quantum circuits for maximally (highly) entangled states are discovered for 3, 4, 5, and 6-qubit systems; and extension of the method to systems with more qubits is discussed. Among other results we have found explicit quantum circuits for maximally entangled 5 and 6-qubit circuits, with only 8 and 13 quantum gates respectively. One significant advantage of our method over previous ones is that it allows very simple construction of quantum circuits based on the quantum states found.

Abstract:
The application of genetic algorithms (GAs) to many optimization problems in organizations often results in good performance and high quality solutions. For successful and efficient use of GAs, it is not enough to simply apply simple GAs (SGAs). In addition, it is necessary to find a proper representation for the problem and to develop appropriate search operators that fit well to the properties of the genotype encoding. The representation must at least be able to encode all possible solutions of an optimization problem, and genetic operators such as crossover and mutation should be applicable to it. In this paper, serial alternation strategies between two codings are formulated in the framework of dynamic change of genotype encoding in GAs for function optimization. Likewise, a new variant of GAs for difficult optimization problems denoted {\it Split-and-Merge} GA (SM-GA) is developed using a parallel implementation of an SGA and evolving a dynamic exchange of individual representation in the context of Dual Coding concept. Numerical experiments show that the evolved SM-GA significantly outperforms an SGA with static single coding.

Abstract:
Genetic algorithm is an effective algorithm in solving the optimizing problem, but it has some disadvantages in the application, such as slow converging speed and prematurity. In this paper, an improved evolutionary algorithm, cal ed the quantum clonal genetic algorithms (QCA), is proposed based on the combining of quantum theory with ge- netic theory and with the main mechanisms of clone. QCA can availably solve 0/1 knapsack problem and it has better diversity and the converging speed than the classical genetic algorithms.