Abstract:
We argue that the Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) images of resonant states generated by doping Zn or Ni impurities into Cu-O planes of BSCCO are the result of quantum interference of the impurity signal coming from several distinct paths. The impurity image seen on the surface is greatly affected by interlayer tunneling matrix elements. We find that the optimal tunneling path between the STM tip and the metal (Cu, Zn, or Ni) $d_{x^2 - y^2}$ orbitals in the Cu-O plane involves intermediate excited states. This tunneling path leads to the four-fold nonlocal filter of the impurity state in Cu-O plane that explains the experimental impurity spectra. Applications of the tunneling filter to the Cu vacancy defects and ``direct'' tunneling into Cu-O planes are also discussed.

Abstract:
We have performed temperature dependent tunneling experiments through a single impurity in an asymmetric vertical double barrier tunneling structure. In particular in the charging direction we observe at zero magnetic field a clear shift in the onset voltage of the resonant tunneling current through the impurity. With a magnetic field applied the shift starts to disappear. The experimental observations are explained in terms of resonant tunneling through a spin degenerate impurity level.

Abstract:
The tunneling between two parallel two-dimensional electron gases has been investigated as a function of temperature $T$, carrier density $n$, and the applied perpendicular magnetic field $B$. In zero magnetic field the equilibrium resonant lineshape is Lorentzian, reflecting the Lorentzian form of the spectral functions within each layer. From the width of the tunneling resonance the lifetime of the electrons within a 2DEG has been measured as a function of $n$ and $T$, giving information about the density dependence of the electron-impurity scattering and the temperature dependence of the electron-electron scattering. In a magnetic field there is a general suppression of equilibrium tunneling for fields above $B=0.6$ T. A gap in the tunneling density of states has been measured over a wide range of magnetic fields and filling factors, and various theoretical predictions have been examined. In a strong magnetic field, when there is only one partially filled Landau level in each layer, the temperature dependence of the conductance characteristics has been modeled with a double-Gaussian spectral density.

Abstract:
We study how the formation of the Kondo compensation cloud influences the dynamical properties of a magnetic impurity that tunnels between two positions in a metal. The Kondo effect dynamically generates a strong tunneling impurity-conduction electron coupling, changes the temperature dependence of the tunneling rate, and may ultimately result in the destruction of the coherent motion of the particle at zero temperature. We find an interesting two-channel Kondo fixed point as well for a vanishing overlap between the electronic states that screen the magnetic impurity. We propose a number of systems where the predicted features could be observed.

Abstract:
We report exact model calculations of the spin-dependent tunneling in double magnetic tunnel junctions in the presence of impurities in the well. We show that the impurity can tune selectively the spin channels giving rise to a wide variety of interesting and novel transport phenomena. The tunneling magnetoresistance, the spin polarization and the local current can be dramatically enhanced or suppressed by impurities. The underlying mechanism is the impurity-induced shift of the quantum well states (QWS) which depends on the impurity potential, impurity position and the symmetry of the QWS.

Abstract:
Injection of spins into semiconductors is essential for the integration of the spin functionality into conventional electronics. Insulating layers are often inserted between ferromagnetic metals and semiconductors for obtaining an efficient spin injection, and it is therefore crucial to distinguish between signatures of electrical spin injection and impurity-driven effects in the tunnel barrier. Here we demonstrate an impurity-assisted tunneling magnetoresistance effect in nonmagnetic-insulator-nonmagnetic and ferromagnetic-insulator-nonmagnetic tunnel barriers. In both cases, the effect reflects on/off switching of the tunneling current through impurity channels by the external magnetic field. The reported effect, which is universal for any impurity-assisted tunneling process, finally clarifies the controversy of a widely used technique that employs the same ferromagnetic electrode to inject and detect spin accumulation.

Abstract:
The quantum Langevin equation has been studied for dissipative system using the approach of Ford et al. Here, we have considered the inverted harmonic oscillator potential and calculated the effect of dissipation on tunneling time, group delay, and the self-interference term. A critical value of the friction coefficient has been determined for which the self-interference term vanishes. This approach sheds new light on understanding the ion transport at nanoscale.

Abstract:
We report on the temperature dependence of the impurity-induced resonant state in Zn-doped Bi_2Sr_2CaCu_2O$_{8+\delta}$ by scanning tunneling spectroscopy at 30 mK < T < 52 K. It is known that a Zn impurity induces a sharp resonant peak in tunnel spectrum at an energy close to the Fermi level. We observed that the resonant peak survives up to 52 K. The peak broadens with increasing temperature, which is explained by the thermal effect. This result provides information to understand the origin of the resonant peak.

Abstract:
We measure tunneling through a single quantum level in a carbon nanotube quantum dot connected to resistive metal leads. For the electrons tunneling to/from the nanotube, the leads serve as a dissipative environment, which suppresses the tunneling rate. In the regime of sequential tunneling, the height of the single-electron conductance peaks increases as the temperature is lowered, although it scales more weekly than the conventional 1/T. In the resonant tunneling regime (temperature smaller than the level width), the peak width approaches saturation, while the peak height starts to decrease. Overall, the peak height shows a non-monotonic temperature dependence. We associate this unusual behavior with the transition from the sequential to the resonant tunneling through a single quantum level in a dissipative environment.

Abstract:
The effects of a non-magnetic Zn impurity substituting an in-plane Cu are studied by solving the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation self-consistently which is derived from the \ttju Hamiltonian with all the allowed order parameters included. The Zn impurity, modeled in terms of a potential scatterer in unitary limit, induces local staggered magnetic moments around itself, and the calculated NMR shifts from the induced moments are in agreement with the experimental Cu NMR spectra. We also note that the experimentally observed negative slope of the tunneling conductance can result from the next-nearest hopping $t'$.