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Saturation effects in the sub-Doppler spectroscopy of Cesium vapor confined in an Extremely Thin Cell  [PDF]
C. Andreeva,S. Cartaleva,L. Petrov,S. M. Saltiel,D. Sarkisyan,T. Varzhapetyan,D. Bloch,M. Ducloy
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.76.013837
Abstract: Saturation effects affecting absorption and fluorescence spectra of an atomic vapor confined in an Extremely Thin Cell (cell thickness $L < 1 \mu m$) are investigated experimentally and theoretically. The study is performed on the $D_{2}$ line ($\lambda ~= ~852 nm)$ of $Cs$ and concentrates on the two situations $L = \lambda /2$ and $L =\lambda$, the most contrasted ones with respect to the length dependence of the coherent Dicke narrowing. For $L = \lambda /2$, the Dicke-narrowed absorption profile simply broadens and saturates in amplitude when increasing the light intensity, while for $L =\lambda$, sub-Doppler dips of reduced absorption at line-center appear on the broad absorption profile. For a fluorescence detection at $L =\lambda$, saturation induces narrow dips, but only for hyperfine components undergoing a population loss through optical pumping. These experimental results are interpreted with the help of the various existing models, and are compared with numerical calculations based upon a two-level modelling that considers both a closed and an open system.
Two-dimensional Fourier-transform Spectroscopy of Potassium Vapor  [PDF]
X. Dai,A. D. Bristow,D. Karaiskaj,S. T. Cundiff
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.82.052503
Abstract: Optical two-dimensional Fourier-transformed (2DFT) spectroscopy is used to study the coherent optical response of potassium vapor in a thin transmission cell. Rephasing and non-rephasing spectra of the D1 and D2 transitions are obtained and compared to numerical simulations. Calculations using the optical Bloch equations gives very good agreement with the experimental peak strengths and line shapes. Non-radiative Raman-like coherences are isolated using a different 2DFT projection. Density-dependent measurements show distortion of 2DFT spectra due to pulse propagation effects.
A vapor cell based on dispensers for laser spectroscopy  [PDF]
E. M. Bridge,J. Millen,C. S. Adams,M. P. A. Jones
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1063/1.3036980
Abstract: We describe a simple strontium vapor cell for laser spectroscopy experiments. Strontium vapor is produced using an electrically heated commercial dispenser source. The sealed cell operates at room temperature, and without a buffer gas or vacuum pump. The cell was characterised using laser spectroscopy, and was found to offer stable and robust operation, with an estimated lifetime of >10,000 hours. By changing the dispenser, this technique can be readily extended to other alkali and alkaline earth elements.
Chemical Vapor Deposition Synthesized Atomically Thin Molybdenum Disulfide with Optoelectronic-Grade Crystalline Quality  [PDF]
Ismail Bilgin,Fangze Liu,Anthony Vargas,Andrew Winchester,Michael K. L. Man,Moneesh Upmanyu,Keshav M Dani,Gautam Gupta,Saikat Talapatra,Aditya D. Mohite,Swastik Kar
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.5b02019
Abstract: The ability to synthesize high-quality samples over large areas and at low cost is one of the biggest challenges during the developmental stage of any novel material. While chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods provide a promising low-cost route for CMOS compatible, large-scale growth of materials, it often falls short of the high-quality demands in nanoelectronics and optoelectronics. We present large-scale CVD synthesis of single- and few- layered MoS2 using direct vapor-phase sulfurization of MoO2, which enables us to obtain extremely high-quality single-crystal monolayer MoS2 samples with field-effect mobility exceeding 30 cm2/Vs in monolayers. These samples can be readily synthesized on a variety of substrates, and demonstrate a high-degree of optoelectronic uniformity in Raman and photoluminescence mapping over entire crystals with areas exceeding hundreds of square micrometers. Owing to their high crystalline quality, Raman spectroscopy on these samples reveal a range of multi-phonon processes through peaks with equal or better clarity compared to past reports on mechanically exfoliated samples. This enables us to investigate the layer thickness- and substrate-dependence of the extremely weak phonon processes at 285 cm-1 and 487 cm-1 in 2D MoS2. The ultra-high, optoelectronic-grade crystalline quality of these samples could be further established through photocurrent spectroscopy, which clearly reveal excitonic states at room temperature, a feat that has been previously demonstrated only on device fabricated with mechanically exfoliated that were artificially suspended across trenches. Our method reflects a big step in the development of atomically thin, 2D MoS2 for scalable, high-quality optoelectronics.
Issues for the Lattice in Hadron Spectroscopy  [PDF]
F. E. Close
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1016/S0920-5632(97)00693-2
Abstract: Lattice QCD predicts a rich spectroscopy of glueballs and $q\bar{q}-$glue h ybrids. I compare these with data and assess the emerging empirical situation. Questions for the lattice are proposed.
Atomic vapor spectroscopy in integrated photonic structures  [PDF]
Ralf Ritter,Nico Gruhler,Wolfram Pernice,Harald Kübler,Tilman Pfau,Robert L?w
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: We investigate an integrated optical chip immersed in atomic vapor providing several waveguide geometries for spectroscopy applications. The narrow-band transmission through a silicon nitride waveguide and interferometer is altered when the guided light is coupled to a vapor of rubidium atoms via the evanescent tail of the waveguide mode. We use grating couplers to couple between the waveguide mode and the radiating wave, which allow for addressing arbitrary coupling positions on the chip surface. The evanescent atom-light interaction can be numerically simulated and shows excellent agreement with our experimental data. This work demonstrates a next step towards miniaturization and integration of alkali atom spectroscopy and provides a platform for further fundamental studies of complex waveguide structures.
Issues in Light Hadron Spectroscopy  [PDF]
D. Morgan
Physics , 1993, DOI: 10.1007/BF02823583
Abstract: A high priority in light spectroscopy is to seek out and characterize various types of non-$(Q\bar{Q}$) meson. The large quantity of new data now appearing will present a great opportunity. To identify the non-$(Q\bar{Q}$) intruders one needs to know the regular $(Q\bar{Q}$) pattern well; whole meson families thus become a target for close investigation. A powerful discovery strategy is to observe the same meson in a variety of reactions. Because mesons appear as resonances, other dynamics can distort the signal in a particular decay channel. Unitarity is the master principle for co- ordinating various sightings of the same resonance. Much of the new spectroscopic information in prospect will come from inferring two-body dynamics from three-body final states. Conventional methods of analysis via the isobar model use approximations to unitarity that need validation. Of all the meson families, the scalars should be a prime hunting ground for non-$(Q\bar{Q}$)'s. Even before the advent of the new results, some revisions of the `official' classifications are urged. In particular, it is argued that the lightest broad $I=0$ scalar is a very broad $f_0$ (1000). One unfinished task is to decide whether $f_0$ (975) and $a_0$ (980) are alike or different; several non-$(Q\bar{Q}$) scalar scenarios hinge on this. To settle this, much better data
Strategies for spectroscopy on Extremely Large Telescopes. II - Diverse field spectroscopy  [PDF]
G. J. Murray,J. R. Allington-Smith
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.15170.x
Abstract: The fields of view of Extremely Large Telescopes will contain vast numbers of spatial sampling elements (spaxels) as their Adaptive Optics systems approach the diffraction limit over wide fields. Since this will exceed the detection capabilities of any realistic instrument, the field must be dilutely sampled to extract spectroscopic data from selected regions of interest. The scientific return will be maximised if the sampling pattern provides an adaptable combination of separated independent spaxels and larger contiguous sub-fields, seamlessly combining integral-field and multiple-object spectroscopy. We illustrate the utility of this Diverse Field Spectroscopy (DFS) to cosmological studies of galaxy assembly. We show how to implement DFS with an instrument concept: the Celestial Selector. This integrates highly-multiplexed monolithic fibre systems (MFS) and switching networks of the type currently available in the telecommunications industry. It avoids bulky moving parts, whose limitations were noted in Paper I. In Paper III we will investigate the optimisation of such systems by varying the input-output mapping.
Sub-Doppler spectroscopy of Rb atoms in a sub-micron vapor cell in the presence of a magnetic field  [PDF]
David Sarkisyan,Aram Papoyan,Tigran Varzhapetyan,Janis Alnis,Kaspars Blush,Marcis Auzinsh
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1088/1464-4258/6/3/023
Abstract: We report the first use of an extremely thin vapor cell (thickness ~ 400 nm) to study the magnetic-field dependence of laser-induced-fluorescence excitation spectra of alkali atoms. This thin cell allows for sub-Doppler resolution without the complexity of atomic beam or laser cooling techniques. This technique is used to study the laser-induced-fluorescence excitation spectra of Rb in a 50 G magnetic field. At this field strength the electronic angular momentum J and nuclear angular momentum I are only partially decoupled. As a result of the mixing of wavefunctions of different hyperfine states, we observe a nonlinear Zeeman effect for each sublevel, a substantial modification of the transition probabilities between different magnetic sublevels, and the appearance of transitions that are strictly forbidden in the absence of the magnetic field. For the case of right- and left- handed circularly polarized laser excitation, the fluorescence spectra differs qualitatively. Well pronounced magnetic field induced circular dichroism is observed. These observations are explained with a standard approach that describes the partial decoupling of I and J states.
Infrared and photoelectron spectroscopy study of vapor phase deposited poly (3-hexylthiophene)  [PDF]
Haoyan Wei,L. Scudiero,Hergen Eilers
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2009.06.031
Abstract: Poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) was thermally evaporated and deposited in vacuum. Infrared spectroscopy was used to confirm that the thin films were indeed P3HT, and showed that in-situ thermal evaporation provides a viable route for contaminant-free surface/interface analysis of P3HT in an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) environment. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) as well as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) experiments were carried out to examine the frontier orbitals and core energy levels of P3HT thin films vapor deposited in UHV on clean polycrystalline silver (Ag) surfaces. UPS spectra enable the determination of the vacuum shift at the polymer/metal interface, the valence band maximum (VBM), and the energy of the \Pi-band of the overlayer film. The P3HT vacuum level decreased in contrast to that of the underlying Ag as the film thickness increased. XPS and UPS data confirmed the chemical integrity (stoichiometry) of the polymer at high coverage, as well as the shift of the C 1s and S 2p binding energy peaks and the secondary-electron edge with increasing film thickness, indicating that band bending is present at the P3HT/Ag interface and that the measured onset of the valence band is about 0.8 +- 0.05 eV relative to the Fermi level.
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