Abstract:
This article explores the emergence of knowledge from scientific discoveries and their effects on the structure of scientific communication. Network analysis is applied to understand this emergence institutionally as changes in the journals; semantically, as changes in the codification of meaning in terms of words; and cognitively as the new knowledge becomes the emergent foundation of further developments. The discovery of fullerenes in 1985 is analyzed as the scientific discovery that triggered a process which led to research in nanotubes.

Abstract:
Using density-functional theory calculations, we investigate the addition energy (AE) of quantum dots formed of fullerenes or closed single-wall carbon nanotubes. We focus on the connection between symmetry and oscillations in the AE spectrum. In the highly symmetric fullerenes the oscillation period is large because of the large level degeneracy and Hund's rule. For long nanotubes, the AE oscillation is fourfold. Adding defects destroys the spatial symmetry of the tubes, leaving only spin degeneracy; correspondingly, the fourfold behavior is destroyed, leaving an even/odd behavior which is quite robust. We use our symmetry results to explain recent experiments. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 116803 (2003).]

Abstract:
In this work we investigated the encapsulation of C$_20$ and C$_30$ fullerenes into semiconducting carbon nanotubes to study the possibility of bandgap engineering in such systems. Classical molecular dynamics simulations coupled to tight-binding calculations were used to determine the conformational and electronic properties of carbon nanotube supercells containing up to 12 fullerenes. We have observed that C$_20$ fullerenes behave similarly to a p-type dopant while C$_30$ ones work as n-type ones. For larger diameter nanotubes, where fullerene patterns start to differ from the linear arrangements (peapods), the doping features are preserved for both fullerenes, but local disorder plays an important role and significantly alters the electronic structure. The combined incorporation of both fullerene types (hybrid encapsulation) into the same nanotube leads to a behavior similar to that found in electronic junctions in Silicon-based electronic devices. These aspects can be exploited in the design of nanoelectronic devices using semiconducting carbon nanotubes.

Abstract:
We use ab initio density functional calculations to study hydrogen-induced disintegration of single- and multi-wall carbon fullerenes and nanotubes. Our results indicate that hydrogen atoms preferentially chemisorb along lines in sp2 bonded carbon nanostructures, locally weakening the carbon bonds and releasing stress. For particular structural arrangements, hydrogen helps to relieve the accumulated stress by inducing step-wise local cleavage leading to disintegration of the outermost wall.

Abstract:
C59N magnetic fullerenes were formed inside single-wall carbon nanotubes by vacuum annealing functionalized C59N molecules encapsulated inside the tubes. A hindered, anisotropic rotation of C59N was deduced from the temperature dependence of the electron spin resonance spectra near room temperature. Shortening of spin-lattice relaxation time, T_1, of C59N indicates a reversible charge transfer toward the host nanotubes above $\sim 350$ K. Bound C59N-C60 heterodimers are formed at lower temperatures when C60 is co-encapsulated with the functionalized C59N. In the 10-300 K range, T_1 of the heterodimer shows a relaxation dominated by the conduction electrons on the nanotubes.

Abstract:
A continuum model for the effective spin orbit interaction in graphene is derived from a tight-binding model which includes the $\pi$ and $\sigma$ bands. We analyze the combined effects of the intra-atomic spin-orbit coupling, curvature, and applied electric field, using perturbation theory. We recover the effective spin-orbit Hamiltonian derived recently from group theoretical arguments by Kane and Mele. We find, for flat graphene, that the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling $\Hi \propto \Delta^ 2$ and the Rashba coupling due to a perpendicular electric field ${\cal E}$, $\Delta_{\cal E} \propto \Delta$, where $\Delta$ is the intra-atomic spin-orbit coupling constant for carbon. Moreover we show that local curvature of the graphene sheet induces an extra spin-orbit coupling term $\Delta_{\rm curv} \propto \Delta$. For the values of $\cal E$ and curvature profile reported in actual samples of graphene, we find that $\Hi < \Delta_{\cal E} \lesssim \Delta_{\rm curv}$. The effect of spin-orbit coupling on derived materials of graphene, like fullerenes, nanotubes, and nanotube caps, is also studied. For fullerenes, only $\Hi$ is important. Both for nanotubes and nanotube caps $\Delta_{\rm curv}$ is in the order of a few Kelvins. We reproduce the known appearance of a gap and spin-splitting in the energy spectrum of nanotubes due to the spin-orbit coupling. For nanotube caps, spin-orbit coupling causes spin-splitting of the localized states at the cap, which could allow spin-dependent field-effect emission.

Abstract:
We investigate a previously unknown phase of phosphorus that shares its layered structure and high stability with the black phosphorus allotrope. We find the in-plane hexagonal structure and bulk layer stacking of this structure, which we call `blue phosphorus', to be related to graphite. Unlike graphite and black phosphorus, blue phosphorus displays a wide fundamental band gap and should exfoliate easily to form quasi-2D structures suitable for electronic applications. We study a likely transformation pathway from black to blue phosphorus and discuss possible ways to synthesize the new structure.

Abstract:
We show that the magnetic properties of antiferromagnetic layered NiCl$_{2}$ can be altered under nano-sizing depending on dimensionality and morphology type of the corresponding nano-forms. By means of Monte-Carlo simulations within classical Heisenberg model, the spin ordering, magnetic part of heat capacity C$_{v}$ and N\'eel temperatures T$_{N}$ for multi-walled NiCl$_{2}$ nanotubes and a fullerene were calculated and analyzed in comparison with the bulk NiCl$_{2}$ and multilayered two-dimensional NiCl$_{2}$ crystals and nanostripes. We have found that the nano-structuring of NiCl$_{2}$ at the size reducing and at the formation of the closed structures can influence propitiously on the preservation of antiferromagnetic properties.

Abstract:
\noindent Using results drawn from the pages of PRL\cite{Zhu2014}, the authors comment on \textquotedblleft Semiconducting Layered Blue Phosphorus: A Computational Study\textquotedblright. In recent letter\cite{Zhu2014} unknown phase of phosphorus with high stability and a wide fundamental gap was proposed by Zhu, and Tom\'anek. The first half of the comment questioned elements of phosphorus blue structure, while the second half devoted to van der Waals forces between AB stacked blue phosphorus layers which missed by them.

Abstract:
We study a versatile structurally favorable periodic $sp^2$-bonded carbon atomic planar sheet with $C_{4v}$ symmetry by means of the first-principles calculations. This carbon allotrope is composed of carbon octagons and squares with two bond lengths and is thus dubbed as octagraphene. It is a semimetal with the Fermi surface consisting of one hole and one electron pocket, whose low-energy physics can be well described by a tight-binding model of $\pi$-electrons. Its Young's modulus, breaking strength and Poisson's ratio are obtained to be 306 $N/m$, 34.4 $N/m$ and 0.13, respectively, which are close to those of graphene. The novel sawtooth and armchair carbon nanotubes as well as unconventional fullerenes can also be constructed from octagraphene. It is found that the Ti-absorbed octagraphene can be allowed for hydrogen storage with capacity around 7.76 wt%.