Abstract:
We present a detailed analysis of the non-analytic structure of the free energy for the itinerant ferromagnet near the quantum critical point in two and three dimensions. We analyze a model of electrons with an isotropic dispersion interacting through a contact repulsion. A fermionic version of the quantum order-by-disorder mechanism allows us to calculate the free energy as a functional of the dispersion in the presence of homogeneous and spiralling magnetic order. We re-sum the leading divergent contributions, to derive an algebraic expression for the non-analytic contribution to free energy from quantum fluctuations. Using a recursion which relates sub-leading divergences to the leading term, we calculate the full T=0 contribution in $d=3$. We propose an interpolating functional form, which allows us to track phase transition lines at temperatures far below the tricritical point and down to T=0. In $d=2$, quantum fluctuations are stronger and non-analyticities more severe. Using a similar re-summation approach, we find that despite the different non-analytic structures, the phase diagrams in two and three dimensions are remarkably similar, exhibiting an incommensurate spiral phase near to the avoided quantum critical point.

Abstract:
We discuss the application of the density functional theory in the local density approximation (LDA) near a ferromagnetic quantum critical point. The LDA fails to describe the critical fluctuations in this regime. This provides a fingerprint of a materials near ferromagnetic quantum critical points: overestimation of the tendency to magnetism in the local density approximation. This is in contrast to the typical, but not universal, tendency of the LDA to underestimate the tendency to magnetism in strongly Hubbard correlated materials. We propose a method for correcting the local density calculations by including critical spin fluctuations. This is based on (1) Landau expansion for the free energy, evaluated within the LDA, (2) lowest order expansion of the RPA susceptibility in LDA and (3) extraction of the amplitude of the relevant (critical) fluctuations by applying the fluctuation-dissipation theorem to the difference between a quantum-critical system and a reference system removed from the quantum critical point. We illustrate some of the aspects of this by the cases of Ni3Al and Ni3Ga, which are very similar metals on opposite sides of a ferromagnetic quantum critical point. LDA calculations predict that Ni3Ga is the more magnetic system, but we find that due to differences in the band structure, fluctuation effects are larger in Ni3Ga, explaining the fact that experimentally it is the less magnetic of the two materials.

Abstract:
We study the strong-coupling superconductivity near ferromagnetic quantum critical points, mainly focusing on the upper critical fields $H_{c2}$. Based on our simple model calculations, we discuss experimentally observed unusual behaviors of $H_{c2}$ in a recently discovered ferromagnetic superconductor UCoGe. Especially, the large anisotropy between $H_{c2}\parallel a$-axis and $H_{c2}\parallel c$-axis, and the strong-coupling behaviors in $H_{c2}^{\parallel a}$ are investigated. We also examine effects of non-analytic corrections in the spin susceptibility on the superconductivity, which can arise from effective long range interactions due to particle-hole excitations.

Abstract:
We study the quench dynamics of a two-component ultracold Fermi gas from the weak into the strong interaction regime, where the short time dynamics are governed by the exponential growth rate of unstable collective modes. We obtain an effective interaction that takes into account both Pauli blocking and the energy dependence of the scattering amplitude near a Feshbach resonance. Using this interaction we analyze the competing instabilities towards Stoner ferromagnetism and pairing.

Abstract:
The multigap superconductivity modulated by quantum confinement effects in a superlattice of quantum wells is presented. Our theoretical BCS approach captures the low-energy physics of a shape resonance in the superconducting gaps when the chemical potential is tuned near a Lifshitz transition. We focus on the case of weak Cooper-pairing coupling channels and strong pair exchange interaction driven by repulsive Coulomb interaction that allows to use the BCS theory in the weak-coupling regime neglecting retardation effects like in quantum condensates of ultracold gases. The calculated matrix element effects in the pairing interaction are shown to yield a complex physics near the particular quantum critical points due to Lifshitz transitions in multigap superconductivity. Strong deviations of the ratio $2\Delta/T_c$ from the standard BCS value as a function of the position of the chemical potential relative to the Lifshitz transition point measured by the Lifshitz parameter are found. The response of the condensate phase to the tuning of the Lifshitz parameter is compared with the response of ultracold gases in the BCS-BEC crossover tuned by an external magnetic field. The results provide the description of the condensates in this regime where matrix element effects play a key role.

Abstract:
We have computed alpha^2F's for the hole-doped cuprates within the framework of the one-band Hubbard model, where the full magnetic response of the system is treated properly. The d-wave pairing weight alpha^2F_d is found to contain not only a low energy peak due to excitations near (pi,pi) expected from neutron scattering data, but to also display substantial spectral weight at higher energies due to contributions from other parts of the Brillouin zone as well as pairbreaking ferromagnetic excitations at low energies. The resulting solutions of the Eliashberg equations yield transition temperatures and gaps comparable to the experimentally observed values, suggesting that magnetic excitations of both high and low energies play an important role in providing the pairing glue in the cuprates.

Abstract:
Pairing of oxygen holes into heavy bipolarons in the paramagnetic phase and their magnetic pair-breaking in the ferromagnetic phase [the so-called current-carrier density collapse (CCDC)] has accounted for the first-order ferromagnetic phase transition, colossal magnetoresistance (CMR), isotope effect, and pseudogap in doped manganites. Here we propose an explanation of the phase coexistence and describe the magnetization and resistivity of manganites near the ferromagnetic transition in the framework of CCDC. The present quantitative description of resistivity is obtained without any fitting parameters by using the experimental resistivities far away from the transition and the experimental magnetization, and essentially model independent.

Abstract:
We analyze an asymptotically exact solution for the transition temperature of p-wave superconductivity near ferromagnetic criticality on the basis of the three-dimensional electron systems in which scattering processes are dominated by exchange interactions with small momentum transfers. Taking into account all Feynman diagrams in the gap equation, we show that vertex corrections neglected in the conventional Eliashberg's formalism enhance the dynamical retarded effect of the pairing interaction, and raise the superconducting transition temperature significantly, though they just give subleading corrections to properties of the normal state.

Abstract:
We give an extensive treatment of the pairing symmetry in the ferromagnetic superconductor $UGe_{2}$. We show that one can draw important conclusions concerning the superconducting state, considering only the transformation properties of the pairing function, without assumptions about the form of the pairing amplitudes.

Abstract:
Spontaneous phase separation instabilities with the formation of various types of charge and spin pairing (pseudo)gaps in $U>0$ Hubbard model including the {\it next nearest neighbor coupling} are calculated with the emphasis on the two-dimensional (square) lattices generated by 8- and 10-site Betts unit cells. The exact theory yields insights into the nature of quantum critical points, continuous transitions, dramatic phase separation instabilities and electron condensation in spatially inhomogeneous systems. The picture of coupled anti-parallel (singlet) spins and paired charged holes suggests full Bose condensation and coherent pairing in real space at zero temperature of electrons complied with the Bose-Einstein statistics. Separate pairing of charge and spin degrees at distinct condensation temperatures offers a new route to superconductivity different from the BCS scenario. The conditions for spin liquid behavior coexisting with unsaturated and saturated Nagaoka ferromagnetism due to spin-charge separation are established. The phase separation critical points and classical criticality found at zero and finite temperatures resemble a number of inhomogeneous, coherent and incoherent nanoscale phases seen near optimally doped high-$T_c$ cuprates, pnictides and CMR nanomaterials.