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ARCONS: A highly multiplexed superconducting optical to near-IR camera  [PDF]
Benjamin A. Mazin,Kieran O'Brien,Sean McHugh,Bruce Bumble,David Moore,Sunil Golwala,Jonas Zmuidzinas
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1117/12.856440
Abstract: We report on the development of ARCONS, the ARray Camera for Optical to Near-IR Spectrophotometry. This photon counting integral field unit (IFU), being built at UCSB and Caltech with detectors fabricated at JPL, will use a unique, highly multiplexed low temperature detector technology known as Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs). These detectors, which operate at 100 mK, should provide photon counting with energy resolution of R = E/{\delta}E > 20 and time resolution of a microsecond, with a quantum efficiency of around 50%. We expect to field the instrument at the Palomar 200" telescope in the first quarter of 2011 with an array containing 1024 pixels in a 32x32 pixel form factor to yield a field of view of approximately 10x10 arcseconds. The bandwidth of the camera is limited by the rising sky count rate at longer wavelengths, but we anticipate a bandwidth of 0.35 to 1.35 {\mu}m will be achievable. A simple optical path and compact dewar utilizing a cryogen-free adiabatic demagnetization refridgerator (ADR) allows the camera to be deployed quickly at Naysmith or Coude foci at a variety of telescopes. A highly expandable software defined radio (SDR) readout that can scale up to much larger arrays has been developed.
Photon counting with loop detector  [PDF]
Konrad Banaszek,Ian A. Walmsley
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1364/OL.28.000052
Abstract: We propose a design for a photon counting detector capable of resolving multiphoton events. The basic element of the setup is a fiber loop, which traps the input field with the help of a fast electrooptic switch. A single weakly coupled avalanche photodiode is used to detect small portions of the signal field extracted from the loop. We analyze the response of the loop detector to an arbitrary input field, and discuss both the reconstruction of the photon number distribution of an unknown field from the count statistics measured in the setup, and the application of the detector in conditional state preparation.
Multiplexed readout demonstration of a TES-based detector array in a resistance locked loop  [PDF]
Jan van der Kuur,Luciano Gottardi,Mikko Kiviranta,Hiroki Akamatsu,Pourya Khosropanah,Roland den Hartog,Toyoaki Suzuki,Brian Jackson
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1109/TASC.2015.2393716
Abstract: TES-based bolometer and microcalorimeter arrays with thousands of pixels are under development for several space-based and ground-based applications. A linear detector response and low levels of cross talk facilitate the calibration of the instruments. In an effort to improve the properties of TES-based detectors, fixing the TES resistance in a resistance-locked loop (RLL) under optical loading has recently been proposed. Earlier theoretical work on this mode of operation has shown that the detector speed, linearity and dynamic range should improve with respect to voltage biased operation. This paper presents an experimental demonstration of multiplexed readout in this mode of operation in a TES-based detector array with noise equivalent power values (NEP) of $3.5\cdot 10^{-19} $W/$\sqrt{\mathrm{Hz}}$. The measured noise and dynamic properties of the detector in the RLL will be compared with the earlier modelling work. Furthermore, the practical implementation routes for future FDM systems for the readout of bolometer and microcalorimeter arrays will be discussed.
High-speed phonon imaging using frequency-multiplexed kinetic inductance detectors  [PDF]
L. J. Swenson,A. Cruciani,A. Benoit,M. Roesch,C. S. Yung,A. Bideaud,A. Monfardini
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1063/1.3459142
Abstract: We present a measurement of phonon propagation in a silicon wafer utilizing an array of frequency-multiplexed superconducting resonators coupled to a single transmission line. The electronic readout permits fully synchronous array sampling with a per-resonator bandwidth of 1.2 MHz, allowing sub-$\mu$s array imaging. This technological achievement is potentially vital in a variety of low-temperature applications, including single-photon counting, quantum-computing and dark-matter searches.
Counting statistics and detector properties of quantum point contacts  [PDF]
Dmitri V. Averin,Eugene V. Sukhorukov
Physics , 2005, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.95.126803
Abstract: Quantum detector properties of the quantum point contact (QPC) are analyzed for arbitrary electron transparency and coupling strength to the measured system and are shown to be determined by the electron counting statistics. Conditions of the quantum-limited operation of the QPC detector which prevent information loss through the scattering time and scattering phases are found for arbitrary coupling. We show that the phase information can be restored and used for the quantum-limited detection by inclusion of the QPC detector in the electronic Mach-Zehnder interferometer.
Technical Considerations for Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing with Multiplexed Libraries
Aniruddha Chatterjee,Euan J. Rodger,Peter A. Stockwell,Robert J. Weeks,Ian M. Morison
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/741542
Abstract: Reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS), which couples bisulfite conversion and next generation sequencing, is an innovative method that specifically enriches genomic regions with a high density of potential methylation sites and enables investigation of DNA methylation at single-nucleotide resolution. Recent advances in the Illumina DNA sample preparation protocol and sequencing technology have vastly improved sequencing throughput capacity. Although the new Illumina technology is now widely used, the unique challenges associated with multiplexed RRBS libraries on this platform have not been previously described. We have made modifications to the RRBS library preparation protocol to sequence multiplexed libraries on a single flow cell lane of the Illumina HiSeq 2000. Furthermore, our analysis incorporates a bioinformatics pipeline specifically designed to process bisulfite-converted sequencing reads and evaluate the output and quality of the sequencing data generated from the multiplexed libraries. We obtained an average of 42 million paired-end reads per sample for each flow-cell lane, with a high unique mapping efficiency to the reference human genome. Here we provide a roadmap of modifications, strategies, and trouble shooting approaches we implemented to optimize sequencing of multiplexed libraries on an a RRBS background.
A Low-Complexity Detector for Memoryless Polarization-Multiplexed Fiber-Optical Channels  [PDF]
Christian H?ger,Lotfollah Beygi,Erik Agrell,Pontus Johannisson,Magnus Karlsson,Alexandre Graell i Amat
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: A low-complexity detector is introduced for polarization-multiplexed M-ary phase shift keying modulation in a fiber-optical channel impaired by nonlinear phase noise, generalizing a previous result by Lau and Kahn for single-polarization signals. The proposed detector uses phase compensation based on both received signal amplitudes in conjunction with simple straight-line rather than four-dimensional maximum-likelihood decision boundaries.
A Near-Infrared 64-pixel Superconducting Nanowire Single Photon Detector Array with Integrated Multiplexed Readout  [PDF]
M. S. Allman,V. B. Verma,M. Stevens,T. Gerrits,R. D. Horansky,A. E. Lita,F. Marsili,A. Beyer,M. D. Shaw,D. Kumor,R. Mirin,S. W. Nam
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1063/1.4921318
Abstract: We demonstrate a 64-pixel free-space-coupled array of superconducting nanowire single photon detectors optimized for high detection efficiency in the near-infrared range. An integrated, readily scalable, multiplexed readout scheme is employed to reduce the number of readout lines to 16. The cryogenic, optical, and electronic packaging to read out the array, as well as characterization measurements are discussed.
UVSiPM: a light detector instrument based on a SiPM sensor working in single photon counting  [PDF]
G. Sottile,F. Russo,G. Agnetta,M. Belluso,S. Billotta,B. Biondo,G. Bonanno,O. Catalano,S. Giarrusso,A. Grillo,D. Impiombato,G. La Rosa,M. C. Maccarone,A. Mangano,D. Marano,T. Mineo,A. Segreto,E. Strazzeri,M. C. Timpanaro,on behalf of the ASTRI Collaboration
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1016/j.nuclphysbps.2013.05.040
Abstract: UVSiPM is a light detector designed to measure the intensity of electromagnetic radiation in the 320-900 nm wavelength range. It has been developed in the framework of the ASTRI project whose main goal is the design and construction of an end-to-end Small Size class Telescope prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array. The UVSiPM instrument is composed by a multipixel Silicon Photo-Multiplier detector unit coupled to an electronic chain working in single photon counting mode with 10 nanosecond double pulse resolution, and by a disk emulator interface card for computer connection. The detector unit of UVSiPM is of the same kind as the ones forming the camera at the focal plane of the ASTRI prototype. Eventually, the UVSiPM instrument can be equipped with a collimator to regulate its angular aperture. UVSiPM, with its peculiar characteristics, will permit to perform several measurements both in lab and on field, allowing the absolute calibration of the ASTRI prototype.
X-ray Imaging Using a Hybrid Photon Counting GaAs Pixel Detector  [PDF]
C. Schwarz,M. Campbell,R. Goeppert,E. H. M. Heijne,J. Ludwig,G. Meddeler,B. Mikulec,E. Pernigotti,M. Rogalla,K. Runge,A. Soldner-Rembold,K. M. Smith,W. Snoeys,J. Watt
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1016/S0920-5632(99)00592-7
Abstract: The performance of hybrid GaAs pixel detectors as X-ray imaging sensors were investigated at room temperature. These hybrids consist of 300 mu-m thick GaAs pixel detectors, flip-chip bonded to a CMOS Single Photon Counting Chip (PCC). This chip consists of a matrix of 64 x 64 identical square pixels (170 mu-m x 170 mu-m) and covers a total area of 1.2 cm**2. The electronics in each cell comprises a preamplifier, a discriminator with a 3-bit threshold adjust and a 15-bit counter. The detector is realized by an array of Schottky diodes processed on semi-insulating LEC-GaAs bulk material. An IV-charcteristic and a detector bias voltage scan showed that the detector can be operated with voltages around 200 V. Images of various objects were taken by using a standard X-ray tube for dental diagnostics. The signal to noise ratio (SNR) was also determined. The applications of these imaging systems range from medical applications like digital mammography or dental X-ray diagnostics to non destructive material testing (NDT). Because of the separation of detector and readout chip, different materials can be investigated and compared.
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