Abstract:
In order to quantify quantum entanglement in two impurity Kondo systems, we calculate the concurrence, negativity, and von Neumann entropy. The entanglement of the two Kondo impurities is shown to be determined by two competing many-body effects, the Kondo effect and the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interaction, $I$. Due to the spin-rotational invariance of the ground state, the concurrence and negativity are uniquely determined by the spin-spin correlation between the impurities. It is found that there exists a critical minimum value of the antiferromagnetic correlation between the impurity spins which is necessary for entanglement of the two impurity spins. The critical value is discussed in relation with the unstable fixed point in the two impurity Kondo problem. Specifically, at the fixed point there is no entanglement between the impurity spins. Entanglement will only be created (and quantum information processing (QIP) be possible) if the RKKY interaction exchange energy, $I$, is at least several times larger than the Kondo temperature, $T_K$. Quantitative criteria for QIP are given in terms of the impurity spin-spin correlation.

Abstract:
Competition between the Kondo effect and Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interaction in the two-impurity Kondo problem can be phenomenologically described by the Rasul-Schlottmann spin model. We revisit this model from the quantum entanglement perspective by calculating both the inter-impurity entanglement and the local Kondo entanglement, the latter being the entanglement between a local magnetic impurity and its spatially nearby conduction electron. A groundstate phase diagram is derived and a discontinuous breakdown of the local Kondo entanglement is found at the singular point, associated concomitantly with a jump in the inter-impurity entanglement. An entanglement monogamy holds in the whole phase diagram. Our results identify the important role of the frustrated cross-coupling and demonstrate the local characteristic of the quantum phase transition in the two-impurity Kondo problem. The implications of these results for Kondo lattices and quantum information processing are also briefly discussed.

Abstract:
The screening of an impurity spin by conduction electrons is associated with the formation of a large Kondo screening cloud, of size xi_K. We study the quantum entanglement between a region of size r surrounding the impurity and the rest of the sample, (of total size R) using Density Matrix Renormalization Group and analytic methods. The corresponding "impurity entanglement entropy", S_{imp}, is shown to be a universal scaling function of r/xi_K and r/R. We calculate this universal function using Fermi liquid theory in the regime xi_K << r.

Abstract:
We propose that real-space properties of the two-impurity Kondo model can be obtained from an effective spin model where two single-impurity Kondo spin chains are joined via an RKKY interaction between the two impurity spins. We then use a DMRG approach, valid in all ranges of parameters, to study its features using two complementary quantum-entanglement measures, the negativity and the von Neumann entropy. This non-perturbative approach enables us to uncover the precise dependence of the spatial extent $\xi_K$ of the Kondo screening cloud with the Kondo and RKKY couplings. Our results reveal an exponential suppression of the Kondo temperature $T_K \sim 1/\xi_K$ with the size of the effective impurity spin in the limit of large ferromagnetic RKKY coupling, a striking display of "Kondo resonance narrowing" in the two-impurity Kondo model. We also show how the antiferromagnetic RKKY interaction produces an effective decoupling of the impurities from the bulk already for intermediate strengths of this interaction, and, furthermore, exhibit how the non-Fermi liquid quantum critical point is signaled in the quantum entanglement between various parts of the system.

Abstract:
We study the two-impurity Kondo model (TIKM) in two dimensions with spin-orbit coupled conduction electrons. In the first part of the paper we analyze how spin-orbit interactions of Rashba as well as Dresselhaus type influence the Kondo and RKKY interactions in the TIKM, generalizing results obtained by H. Imamura {\em et al.} (2004) and J. Malecki (2007). Using our findings we then explore the effect from spin-orbit interactions on the non-Fermi liquid quantum critical transition between the RKKY-singlet and Kondo-screened RKKY-triplet states. We argue that spin-orbit interactions under certain conditions produce a line of critical points exhibiting the same leading scaling behavior as that of the ordinary TIKM. In the second part of the paper we shift focus and turn to the question of how spin-orbit interactions affect the entanglement between two localized RKKY-coupled spins in the parameter regime where the competition from the direct Kondo interaction can be neglected. Using data for a device with two spinful quantum dots patterned in a gated InAs heterostructure we show that a gate-controlled spin-orbit interaction may drive a maximally entangled state to one with vanishing entanglement, or vice versa (as measured by the concurrence). This has important implications for proposals using RKKY interactions for nonlocal control of qubit entanglement in semiconductor heterostructures.

Abstract:
Motivated by proposals to employ RKKY-coupled spins as building blocks in a solid-state quantum computer, we analyze how the RKKY interaction in a 2D electron gas is influenced by spin-orbit interactions. Using a two-impurity Kondo model with added Dresselhaus and Rashba spin-orbit interactions we find that spin-rotational invariance of the RKKY interaction - essential for having a well-controllable two-qubit gate - is restored when tuning the Rashba coupling to have the same strength as the Dresselhaus coupling. We also discuss the critical properties of the two-impurity Kondo model in the presence of spin-orbit interactions, and extract the leading correction to the block entanglement scaling due to these interactions.

Abstract:
We study the entanglement of an impurity at one end of a spin chain with a block of spins using negativity as a true measure of entanglement to characterize the unique features of the gapless Kondo regime in the spin chain Kondo model. For this spin chain in the Kondo regime we determine- with a true entanglement measure- the spatial extent of the Kondo screening cloud, we propose an ansatz for its ground state and demonstrate that the impurity spin is indeed maximally entangled with the cloud. To better evidence the peculiarities of the Kondo regime, we carry a parallel analysis of the entanglement properties of the Kondo spin chain model in the gapped dimerised regime. Our study shows how a genuine entanglement measure stemming from quantum information theory can fully characterize also non perturbative regimes accessible to certain condensed matter systems.

Abstract:
The entanglement entropy in Kondo impurity systems is studied analytically using conformal field theory. From the impurity contribution to the scaling corrections of the entanglement entropy we extract information about the screening cloud profile for general non-Fermi-liquid fixed points. By also considering the finite-temperature corrections to scaling of the von Neumann entropy we point out a direct connection between the large-distance screening cloud profile and thermodynamic observables such as the specific heat.

Abstract:
We derive the multiscale entanglement renormalization ansatz (MERA) for the single impuity Kondo model. We find two types of hidden quantum entanglement: one comes from a finite-temperature effect on the geometry of the MERA network, and the other represents screening of the impurity by conduction electrons. As the latter starts to dominate the electronic state, the Kondo physics emerges. The present result is a simple and beautiful example of a holographic dual of a boundary conformal field theory.

Abstract:
We investigate the entanglement properties of the Kondo spin chain when it is prepared in its ground state as well as its dynamics following a single bond quench. We show that a true measure of entanglement such as negativity enables to characterize the unique features of the gapless Kondo regime. We determine the spatial extent of the Kondo screening cloud and propose an ansatz for the ground state in the Kondo regime accessible to this spin chain; we also demonstrate that the impurity spin is indeed maximally entangled with the Kondo cloud. We exploit these features of the entanglement in the gapless Kondo regime to show that a single local quench at one end of a Kondo spin chain may always induce a fast and long lived oscillatory dynamics, which establishes a high quality entanglement between the individual spins at the opposite ends of the chain. This entanglement is a footprint of the presence of the Kondo cloud and may be engineered so as to attain - even for very large chains- a constant high value independent of the length; in addition, it is thermally robust. To better evidence the remarkable peculiarities of the Kondo regime, we carry a parallel analysis of the entanglement properties of the Kondo spin chain model in the gapped dimerised regime where these remarkable features are absent.