Abstract:
We investigate here the Cooper pairing of fermionic atoms with mismatched fermi surfaces using a variational construct for the ground state. We determine the state for different values of the mismatch of chemical potential for weak as well as strong coupling regimes including the BCS BEC cross over region. We consider Cooper pairing with both zero and finite net momentum. Within the variational approximation for the ground state and comparing the thermodynamic potentials, we show that (i) the LOFF phase is stable in the weak coupling regime, (ii) the LOFF window is maximum on the BEC side near the Feshbach resonance and (iii) the existence of stable gapless states with a single fermi surface for negative average chemical potential on the BEC side of the Feshbach resonance.

Abstract:
We propose a wide universality class of gapless superfluids, and analyze a limit that might be realized in quark matter at intermediate densities. In the breached pairing color superconducting phase heavy $s$-quarks, with a small Fermi surface, pair with light $u$ or $d$ quarks. The groundstate has a superfluid and a normal Fermi component simultaneously. We expect a second order phase transition, as a function of increasing density, from the breached pairing phase to the conventional color-flavor locked (CFL) phase.

Abstract:
In this paper we present a very general theoretical framework for addressing fermionic superfluids over the entire range of BCS to Bose Einstein condensation (BEC) crossover in the presence of population imbalance or spin polarization. Our emphasis is on providing a theory which reduces to the standard zero temperature mean field theories in the literature, but necessarily includes pairing fluctuation effects at non-zero temperature within a consistent framework. Physically, these effects are associated with the presence of pre-formed pairs (or a fermionic pseudogap) in the normal phase, and pair excitations of the condensate, in the superfluid phase. We show how this finite $T$ theory of fermionic pair condensates bears many similarities to the condensation of point bosons. In the process we examine three different types of condensate: the usual breached pair or Sarma phase and both the one and two plane wave Larkin- Ovchinnikov, Fulde-Ferrell (LOFF) states. The last of these has been discussed in the literature albeit only within a Landau-Ginzburg formalism, generally valid near $T_c$. Here we show how to arrive at the two plane wave LOFF state in the ground state as well as at general temperature $T$.

Abstract:
A general analysis on Fermion pairing at finite temperature and density between different species with mismatched Fermi surfaces is presented. Very different from the temperature effect of BCS phase, the recently found breached pairing phase resulted from density difference of the two species lies in a region with calabash-like shape in the $T-\mu$ plane, and the most probable temperature for the new phase's creation is finite but not zero.

Abstract:
Superfluidity in fermionic systems originates from pairing of fermions, and Bose condensation of these so-called Cooper pairs. The Cooper pairs are usually made of fermions of different species; for example in superconductors they are pairs of electrons with opposite spins. Thus the most favorable situation for pairing and superfluidity is when the two species of fermions that form pairs have the same density. This paper studies the possible superfluid states when the two pairing species have different densities, and show that the resultant states have remarkable similarities to the phases of liquid crystals. This enables us to provide a unified description of the possible pairing phases, and understand the phase transitions among them.

Abstract:
We introduce an exactly-solvable model to study the competition between the Larkin-Ovchinnikov-Fulde-Ferrell (LOFF) and breached-pair superfluid in strongly interacting ultracold asymmetric Fermi gases. One can thus investigate homogeneous and inhomogeneous states on an equal footing and establish the quantum phase diagram. For certain values of the filling and the interaction strength, the model exhibits a new stable exotic pairing phase which combines an inhomogeneous state with an interior gap to pair-excitations. It is proven that this phase is the exact ground state in the strong coupling limit, while numerical examples demonstrate that also at finite interaction strength it can have lower energy than the breached-pair or LOFF states.

Abstract:
The fermion Cooper pairing with unequal masses is investigated in a standard field theory approach. We derived the superfluid density and Meissner mass squared of the U(1) gauge field in a general two species model and found that the often used proportional relation between the two quantities is broken down when the fermion masses are unequal. In weak coupling region, the superfluid density is always negative but the Meissner mass squared becomes mostly positive when the mass ratio between the pairing fermions is large enough. We established a proper momentum configuration of the LOFF pairing with unequal masses and showed that the LOFF state is energetically favored due to the negative superfluid density. The single plane wave LOFF state is physically equivalent to an anisotropic state with a spontaneously generated superflow. The extension to finite range interaction is briefly discussed.

Abstract:
In this chapter the recent theoretical work on phase transition in imbalanced fermion superfluids is reviewed. The imbalanced systems are those in which the two fermionic species candidate to form pairing have different Fermi surfaces or densities. We consider systems subjected to weak interactions. In this scenario two distinct phase transitions are predicted to occur. A thermodynamical phase transition, induced by the temperature (T), and a quantum phase transition as a function of the increasing chemical potentials asymmetry, that takes place at zero temperature. We also briefly discuss some recent experimental work at non-zero T with imbalanced Fermi gases in cold atomic traps.

Abstract:
Anisotropic pairing between fermion species with different fermi momenta opens two-dimensional areas of gapless excitations, thus producing a spatially homogeneous state with coexisting superfluid and normal fluids. This breached pairing state is stable and robust for arbitrarily small mismatch and weak p-wave coupling.

Abstract:
We introduce an exactly solvable model for trapped three-color atom gases. Applications to a cigar-shaped trapped cold fermions reveal a complex structure of breached pairing phases. We find two competing superfluid phases at weak and intermediate couplings, each one with two color pair condensates, that can be distinguished from density profile measurements.