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COLIN CLARK MEMORIAL LECTURE 2009: What Have we Learnt? The Great Depression in Australia from the Perspective of Today  [PDF]
David Gruen,Colin Clark
Economic Analysis and Policy , 2010,
Abstract: This lecture examines the lessons learnt from Australia’s experience in the 1930s, and how these lessons have informed more recent economic policy decisions including the policy responses to the current global financial crisis. The lecture argues that the lessons learnt from the Great Depression have informed the macroeconomic frameworks of today. While Australia’s policy frameworks of the 1930s were tragically ill equipped to cope with anything other than small, inconsequential macroeconomic or financial market shocks, the policy frameworks put in place in the modern era have rendered the economy much more resilient to such shocks.
Care or Cry: Three years from Cyclone Gonu.What have we learnt?  [cached]
Sultan Al-Shaqsi
Oman Medical Journal , 2010,
Abstract: ABSTRACT:Objectives: This article examines and evaluates the history of natural disasters in Oman and presents the health care response to cyclone Gonu, and highlights the health care lessons learnt from the Cyclone as narrated by frontline personnel and it puts forward some practical recommendations for health care policy makers in order to strengthen the health care disaster preparations to combat future natural and man-made disasters.Methods: The lessons presented in this article are based on the reflections of frontline health care personnel who witnessed Cyclone Gonu. The reflections of experience collected as a part of a qualitative 17 semi-structured interviews conducted in Oman between December 2009 and January 2010.Results: The study found that the lessons from passes events went by un-noticed and exposed some serious fragmentation in the coordination of different governmental sectors involved in emergency management and that there was no well-plannedmechanism of alert and warning dissemination to people and communities.Conclusion:Overall, the major lessons that learnt from Cyclone Gonu would have been very useful if they had been taken into consideration and implemented during the health care response to cyclone Phet.
Microarrays and breast cancer clinical studies: forgetting what we have not yet learnt
Ahmed Ahmed, James D Brenton
Breast Cancer Research , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/bcr1017
Abstract: By the time that a breast cancer is clinically apparent it has undergone multiple genetic and epigenetic primary carcinogenic events and further secondary molecular changes that ensure the adaptation of its cells to the changing micro-environment. The diversity of these genetic changes has made it difficult to classify breast cancer molecularly, and as a consequence there has been great enthusiasm for using genome-wide profiling methods to acquire a better understanding of the disease. This has led to an increasing number of studies using expression array profiling to improve the prediction of cancer prognosis [1-7]. Great things have been promised by exponents of these technologies [8]. How should we view the impact of current work?Irrespective of the questions being addressed in a profiling study, microarray techniques have inherent problems that lead to considerable data variability. Major sources of variability can arise from methods of RNA extraction [9,10], different types of probe preparation [9,11], probe labelling [12,13] and hybridisation [14,15]. It is also clear that varying the microarray platform, reference sample or segmentation method used for microarray image analysis leads to significant differences in data repeatability and gene discovery [16-18]. Although the MIAME (minimum information about a microarray experiment) report defines standards for information needed for reporting microarray experiments [19], it does not describe or quantify variabilities in the experiments. More studies addressing these experimental issues are urgently needed [20,21] along with efforts to define common standards for expression measurement controls. Guidelines are already emerging for best practice in using expression profiling for clinical trials [22].The aim of supervised classification of microarray data is to detect genes that might prospectively predict defined outcomes. Existing studies in breast cancer have involved three steps: identifying a set of genes that
Rabia K,EM Khoo
Malaysian Family Physician , 2007,
Abstract: Stroke is the third leading cause of death, a major cause of disability in adults, and is frequently more disabling than fatal. With a decline in mortality from initial cerebral infarction and an increase in the life expectancy of the population, the number of patients with recurrent stroke and ensuing cardiovascular events will become greater. Thus it is important to find out those patients at high risk of stroke recurrence. This case report illustrates the process of recurrent stroke and the resulting disabilities and morbidities in a 42-year- old man. The role of integrated stroke rehabilitation programme is described.
Head injury research: What have we learnt?  [cached]
Guha Arpan
Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine , 2004,
The Operation Procedure of Equivalence of Measuring Instruments in Cross-Cultural Researches: What Have We Learnt from the Positive Psychology?

段文杰, 白羽, 何敏贤, 唐小晴
Advances in Psychology (AP) , 2012, DOI: 10.12677/ap.2012.22013
Abstract: 本文以兼顾文化共通性与文化特殊性研究范式为逻辑起点,以跨文化研究中有关等价性原则为指导,有效整合世界卫生组织关于测量工具翻译和修订基本指导方针的相关内容,扩展传统回译法的基本步骤,提出“三方翻译程序”,同时从定性和定量两个角度获得参考资料,最终整合出含有7个步骤的跨文化研究测量工具等价性操作流程。
With the logical starting point of Combined Etic-Emic Approach, and the guidance of rules related to equivalence in cross-cultural researches, this paper effectively integrates the relevant rules about measuring tool translation and modification developed by World Health Organization (WHO), expands the basic steps of traditional method of Back-translation, proposes a “Trilateral Translation Procedure”, and attains the reference materials from the perspectives of quantitive and qualitative, finally produces a measurement tool equivalence operation procedure of cross-cultural research including 7 steps.
Mobile Usability in Educational Contexts: What have we learnt?  [cached]
Agnes Kukulska-Hulme
International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning , 2007,
Abstract: The successful development of mobile learning is dependent on human factors in the use of new mobile and wireless technologies. The majority of mobile learning activity continues to take place on devices that were not designed with educational applications in mind, and usability issues are often reported. The paper reflects on progress in approaches to usability and on recent developments, with particular reference to usability findings reported in studies of mobile learning. The requirements of education are considered as well as the needs of students participating in distance education; discipline-specific perspectives and accessibility issues are also addressed. Usability findings from empirical studies of mobile learning published in the literature are drawn together in the paper, along with an account of issues that emerged in two mobile learning projects based at The Open University, UK, in 2001 and 2005. The main conclusions are: that usability issues are often reported in cases where PDAs have been used; that the future is in scenario-based design which should also take into account the evolution of uses over time and the unpredictability of how devices might be used; and that usability issues should be tracked over a longer period, from initial use through to a state of relative experience with the technology.
Twenty years of childhood blindness: what have we learnt?
Clare Gilbert,Mohammed Muhit
Community Eye Health Journal , 2008,
Abstract: Over the last 20 years, much has been achieved in controlling blindness in children. Prior to the launch of VISION 2020, a number of international initiatives and programmes had raised the profile and increased interventions for child health and survival, which also had a positive impact on eye diseases and blindness in children, e.g. the Expanded Programme for Immunisation (EPI )(1974) and the Global School Health Initiative (1995). Since 2000, the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals have emphasised the need to promote child health and survival.
Measurement of neutrino flux from the primary proton--proton fusion process in the Sun with Borexino detector  [PDF]
O. Y. Smirnov,M. Agostini,S. Appel,G. Bellini,J. Benziger,D. Bick,G. Bonfini,D. Bravo,B. Caccianiga,F. Calaprice,A. Caminata,P. Cavalcante,A. Chepurnov,K. Choi,D. D'Angelo,S. Davini,A. Derbin,L. Di Noto,I. Drachnev,A. Empl,A. Etenko,K. Fomenko,D. Franco,F. Gabriele,C. Galbiati,C. Ghiano,M. Giammarchi,M. Goeger-Neff,A. Goretti,M. Gromov,C. Hagner,E. Hungerford,Aldo Ianni,Andrea Ianni,K. Jedrzejczak,M. Kaiser,V. Kobychev,D. Korablev,G. Korga,D. Kryn,M. Laubenstein,B. Lehnert,E. Litvinovich,F. Lombardi,P. Lombardi,L. Ludhova,G. Lukyanchenko,I. Machulin,S. Manecki,W. Maneschg,S. Marcocci,E. Meroni,M. Meyer,L. Miramonti,M. Misiaszek,P. Mosteiro,V. Muratova,B. Neumair,L. Oberauer,M. Obolensky,F. Ortica,K. Otis,L. Pagani,M. Pallavicini,L. Papp,L. Perasso,A. Pocar,G. Ranucci,A. Razeto,A. Re,A. Romani,R. Roncin,N. Rossi,S. Sch?nert,D. Semenov,H. Simgen,M. Skorokhvatov,A. Sotnikov,S. Sukhotin,Y. Suvorov,R. Tartaglia,G. Testera,J. Thurn,M. Toropova,E. Unzhakov,R. B. Vogelaar,F. von Feilitzsch,H. Wang,S. Weinz,J. Winter,M. Wojcik,M. Wurm,Z. Yokley,O. Zaimidoroga,S. Zavatarelli,K. Zuber,G. Zuzel
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Neutrino produced in a chain of nuclear reactions in the Sun starting from the fusion of two protons, for the first time has been detected in a real-time detector in spectrometric mode. The unique properties of the Borexino detector provided an oppurtunity to disentangle pp-neutrino spectrum from the background components. A comparison of the total neutrino flux from the Sun with Solar luminosity in photons provides a test of the stability of the Sun on the 10$^{5}$ years time scale, and sets a strong limit on the power production in the unknown energy sources in the Sun of no more than 4\% of the total energy production at 90\% C.L.
Cosmic Ray Sun Shadow in Soudan 2 Underground Muon Flux  [PDF]
Soudan 2 Collaboration
Physics , 1999,
Abstract: The absorption of cosmic rays by the sun produces a shadow at the earth. The angular offset and broadening of the shadow are determined by the magnitude and structure of the interplanetary magnetic field (IPMF) in the inner solar system. We report the first measurement of the solar cosmic ray shadow by detection of deep underground muon flux in observations made during the entire ten-year interval 1989 to 1998. The sun shadow varies significantly during this time, with a $3.3\sigma$ shadow observed during the years 1995 to 1998.
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