Abstract:
A new class of fragmentation functions, arising from the interference of different hadron production channels, is analyzed. Their symmetry properties with respect to naive time-reversal transformations allow for the exploration of final-state interactions occurring during and after the hadronization. Their symmetry properties with respect to chiral transformations allow building spin asymmetries where the quark transversity distribution can be factorized out at leading twist. Explicit calculations will be shown for the interference fragmentation functions arising from final-state interactions of two pions detected in the same current jet for the case of semi-inclusive Deep-Inelastic Scattering (DIS).

Abstract:
We discuss the properties of fragmentation functions arising from the interference of two leading hadrons produced inside the same jet in the current fragmentation region of a hard process. For the case of semi-inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS), a proper folding of the cross section, integrated over the azimuthal position of the detected hadrons, produces a factorized form that allows for the extraction of the quark transversity distribution at leading twist. Using an extended spectator model, explicit calculations are shown for the hadron pair being two pions with invariant mass inside the $\rho$ resonance width.

Abstract:
The new formalism for description of (un)polarized semi-inclusive DIS at moderate energies is developed. Hadron production is modeled as a product of distribution functions and hadronization functions (HFs) weighted by the hard scattering cross sections, as it is done in the {\tt LEPTO} event generator. The correct treatment of polarization effects shows that description of semi-inclusive DIS within this formalism includes a new nonperturbative input -- {\it polarized} HFs. It is shown that this approach does not correspond to the commonly adopted one with the independent quark fragmentation. The purity method used by the HERMES collaboration mixes up the two approaches and ignores the contributions from polarized HFs. This method cannot be considered a precise tool for the extraction of polarized quark distributions from measured SIDIS asymmetries.

Abstract:
We investigate the properties of interference fragmentation functions measurable from the distribution of two hadrons produced in the same jet in the current fragmentation region of a hard process. We discuss the azimuthal angular dependences in the leading order cross section of two-hadron inclusive lepton-nucleon scattering as an example how these interference fragmentation functions can be addressed separately.

Abstract:
We discuss a possible explanation of the 25 year old mystery of the large transverse spin asymmetries found in many semi-inclusive hadron-hadron reactions. We obtain the first reliable information about the transverse polarized quark densities Delta_T q(x) and we find surprising implications for the usual, longitudinal, polarized DIS. The plan of the presentation is as follows: 1) A brief reminder about the internal structure of the nucleon. 2) The transverse asymmetries. 3) Why it is so difficult to explain the asymmetries. 4) Failure and then success using a new soft mechanism. 5) implications for polarized DIS.

Abstract:
We analyze one-particle inclusive DIS in the case when a spin-1 hadron (such as a vector meson) is observed in the final state. We consider only leading order contributions in 1/Q, but we include transverse momentum of partons. Several new fragmentation functions appear in cross sections. One of them can be measured in connection with the transverse-spin disbtribution function h_1.

Abstract:
We give a general overview of the role and interpretation of fragmentation functions in hard processes. Transverse momentum dependence gives rise to time-reversal odd fragmentation functions contributing at leading order. Final state interactions are necessary to have non-zero time reversal odd functions. We present a model calculation for the special case of interference fragmentation functions in two-hadron inclusive lepton hadron scattering.

Abstract:
Transverse Momentum Dependent (TMD) dihadron production, including vector meson production, allows access to various TMD distribution and fragmentation functions. Dihadron production is complementary to single hadron semi-inclusive DIS measurements, pairing the same distribution functions with different fragmentation functions. While dihadrons present unique measurement opportunities, the TMD dihadron cross section is significantly more complex than that for single hadron production, due to the polarization in the final state. Various theoretical advances, which further clarify the complexity, will be highlighted. The HERMES analysis of the transverse target moments of the TMD dihadron cross section allows the first test of a particular prediction of the Lund/Artru string fragmentation model, specifically that the favored Collins fragmentation function has opposite sign in single hadron production versus vector meson production. The status and results of this analysis will be discussed and an extension of the Lund/Artru model for disfavored fragmentation will also be presented.

Abstract:
We investigate the properties of interference fragmentation functions arising from the emission of two leading hadrons inside the same jet for inclusive lepton-nucleon deep-inelastic scattering. Using an extended spectator model for the mechanism of the hadronization, we give a complete calculation and numerical estimates for the examples of a proton-pion pair produced with invariant mass on the Roper resonance, and of two pions produced with invariant mass close to the $\rho$ mass. We discuss azimuthal angular dependence of the leading order cross section to point up favourable conditions for extracting transversity from experimental data.

Abstract:
The fragmentation properties in deep-inelastic scattering (DIS) at HERA are investigated in order to test perturbative QCD and quark fragmentation universality. Selected results for the inclusive single particle distributions and the angular two-particle correlations in the current region of the Breit frame are presented and compared to results from $e^{+}e^{-}$ collisions. The extension of the DIS fragmentation studies to the target region of the Breit frame are also reported.