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Far-Ultraviolet Radiation from Elliptical Galaxies  [PDF]
Robert W. O'Connell
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1146/annurev.astro.37.1.603
Abstract: Far-ultraviolet radiation is a ubiquitous, if unanticipated, phenomenon in elliptical galaxies and early-type spiral bulges. It is the most variable photometric feature associated with old stellar populations. Recent observational and theoretical evidence shows that it is produced mainly by low-mass, small-envelope, helium-burning stars in extreme horizontal branch and subsequent phases of evolution. These are probably descendents of the dominant, metal rich population of the galaxies. Their lifetime UV outputs are remarkably sensitive to their physical properties and hence to the age and the helium and metal abundances of their parents. UV spectra are therefore exceptionally promising diagnostics of old stellar populations, although their calibration requires a much improved understanding of giant branch mass loss, helium enrichment, and atmospheric diffusion.
The Far-Ultraviolet Radiation from Elliptical Galaxies  [PDF]
Ben Dorman
Physics , 1997,
Abstract: Since the discovery of the Ultraviolet Upturn Phenomenon (``UVX'') in early-type galaxies it has been clear that the stellar populations of such systems contain an unexpected hot component. Recent work has provided strong circumstantial evidence that the stars radiating at short wavelengths (< 2000 Angstrom) is in fact due to hot horizontal branch, post-HB stars and post-AGB stars. We summarize the arguments in favour of this hypothesis. We then derive an estimate for the fraction of all HB stars that must be contributing to the UV upturn phenomenon in the strongest UVX galaxy, NGC 1399, and derive a hot star fraction f_H ~ 0.16.The implication is that UVX arises from a minority fraction of the dominant stellar population. We conclude that the mechanism that produces the UVX is not one that can be explained naturally by the presence of an extremely metal-rich or metal-poor population.
Ultraviolet Radiation from Evolved Stellar Populations: II. The Ultraviolet Upturn Phenomenon in Elliptical Galaxies  [PDF]
Ben Dorman,Robert W. O'Connell,Robert T. Rood
Physics , 1994, DOI: 10.1086/175428
Abstract: We present an analysis of the far-ultraviolet upturn phenomenon (UVX) observed in elliptical galaxies and spiral galaxy bulges. Our premise is that the UV radiation from these systems emanates primarily from extreme horizontal branch (EHB) stars and their progeny. We re-derive the broad-band UV colors $1500-V$ and $2500-V$ for globular clusters and elliptical galaxies from the available satellite data and investigate color-color and color-line strength correlations. We also provide the ingredients necessary for constructing models with arbitrary HB morphologies.
The photoionization effect of the ultraviolet background on the colour-magnitude relation of elliptical galaxies  [PDF]
M. Nagashima,N. Gouda
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.2001.04657.x
Abstract: We examined effects of the ultraviolet background radiation (UVB) on the colour--magnitude relation (CMR) of elliptical galaxies in clusters of galaxies in the hierarchical clustering scenario by using a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation. In our model the UVB photoionizes gas in dark haloes and suppresses the cooling of the diffuse hot gas onto galaxy discs. By using a semi-analytic model without the effect of the UVB, Kauffmann & Charlot found that the CMR can be reproduced by strong supernova heating because such supernova feedback suppresses the chemical enrichment in galaxies especially for small galaxies. We find that the CMR also becomes bluer because of the UVB, in a different way from the effect of supernova feedback. While the supernova feedback suppresses the chemical enrichment by a similar mechanism to galactic wind, the UVB suppresses the cooling of the hot gas. This fact induces the suppression of the metallicity of the intracluster medium (ICM). In our model we find that the existence of the UVB can plausibly account for an observed ICM metallicity that is equal to nearly 0.3 times the solar value, and that in this case we can reproduce the CMR and the metallicity of the ICM simultaneously.
Far-Ultraviolet Emission from Elliptical Galaxies at z=0.33  [PDF]
Thomas M. Brown,Henry C. Ferguson,Ed Smith,Charles W. Bowers,Randy A. Kimble,Alvio Renzini,R. Michael Rich
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1086/374035
Abstract: We present far-ultraviolet (far-UV) images of the rich galaxy cluster ZwCl1358.1+6245, taken with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). When combined with archival HST observations, our data provide a measurement of the UV-to-optical flux ratio in 8 early-type galaxies at z=0.33. Because the UV flux originates in a population of evolved, hot, horizontal branch (HB) stars, this ratio is potentially one of the most sensitive tracers of age in old populations -- it is expected to fade rapidly with lookback time. We find that the UV emission in these galaxies, at a lookback time of 3.9 Gyr, is significantly weaker than it is in the current epoch, yet similar to that in galaxies at a lookback time of 5.6 Gyr. Taken at face value, these measurements imply different formation epochs for the massive ellipticals in these clusters, but an alternative explanation is a "floor" in the UV emission due to a dispersion in the parameters that govern HB morphology.
Constraints on the Stellar Populations of Elliptical Galaxies from Ultraviolet Spectra  [PDF]
Ben Dorman,Robert W. O'Connell
Physics , 1996,
Abstract: We present preliminary results from spectral synthesis models of old stellar populations for the spectral range 912-4000 A with ~ 10A resolution, which can be used to investigate the UVX phenomenon and to assess ages and abundances. Model spectra incorporating extreme horizontal branch (EHB) and Post-Asymptotic Giant Branch (P-AGB) populations give good matches to the far-UV spectra of galaxies. These models indicate an EHB fraction which is < 10% of the total HB population in all but the most extreme examples of the UVX phenomenon, where the EHB fraction is still <= 20. Once the hot component that gives rise to the UVX phenomenon is accounted for, the mid-UV wavelength range (2200 < lambda < 3300 A) provides information about the age and metallicity of the underlying stellar population. The flux in this spectral range arises mainly from stars close to the main sequence turnoff. We compare models with the spectrum of M31 and discuss UV features which should be useful as population diagnostics.
A Far Ultraviolet Analysis of the Stellar Populations in Six Elliptical and S0 Galaxies  [PDF]
T. M. Brown,H. C. Ferguson,A. F. Davidsen,B. Dorman
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1086/304187
Abstract: We have analyzed the far-ultraviolet (FUV) spectra of six elliptical and S0 galaxies in order to characterize their hot stellar populations. The spectra were obtained using the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope (HUT) in March 1995. These data, together with the spectra of two galaxies observed with HUT in 1990, represent the only FUV spectra of early type galaxies that extend to the Lyman limit at 912 A and therefore include the "turnover" in the spectral energy distribution below Lyman alpha. Using an extensive new grid of synthetic spectra which match the HUT resolution and cover the relevant parameter space of temperature and gravity, we have constructed synthetic spectral energy distributions by integrating over predicted stellar evolutionary tracks for horizontal branch stars and their progeny. When the models are compared with the HUT data, we find that those with supersolar metal abundances and helium best reproduce the flux across the entire HUT wavelength range, while those with subsolar Z & Y fit less well, partly because of a significant flux deficit shortward of 970 A in the models. We find that AGB-Manque evolution is required in all fits to the HUT spectra, suggesting that all of the galaxies have some subdwarf B star population. At any Z & Y, the models that best match the HUT flux are dominated by stars evolving from a narrow range of envelope mass on the blue end of the horizontal branch.
F. C. Hernu00E1ndez,G. Bruzual
Revista mexicana de astronomía y astrofísica , 2009,
Abstract: We have compiled a sample of 519 nearby (z < 0:13) elliptical galaxies, selected by matching the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) Medium Imaging Survey (MIS) with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Fourth Data Release (DR4). Our galaxies are bright, with r < 16:8 and have FUV (far ultraviolet) an NUV (near ultraviolet) emission. We build a UV Color Magnitude Relation (CMR) using GALEX and SDSS photometric bands, and analyze the evolution of this CMR for these galaxies using stellar population synthesis models. We nd that these galaxies may have su ered a small amount of recent residual star formation (1{2% of the galaxy mass). Extreme Horizontal Branch (EHB) stars can explain galaxies with 4 < NUV- r < 5:4.
Molecular Gas in Elliptical Galaxies  [PDF]
L. M. Young
Physics , 2000,
Abstract: The distribution and kinematics of the molecular gas in elliptical galaxies give information on the origin and history of the gas and the rate of star formation activity in ellipticals. I describe some preliminary results of a survey which will more than double the number of elliptical galaxies with resolved molecular distributions.
Chaos in elliptical galaxies  [PDF]
J. C. Muzzio
Physics , 2012,
Abstract: Here I present a review of the work done on the presence and effects of chaos in elliptical galaxies plus some recent results we obtained on this subject. The fact that important fractions of the orbits that arise in potentials adequate to represent elliptical galaxies are chaotic is nowadays undeniable. Alternatively, it has been difficult to build selfconsistent models of elliptical galaxies that include significant fractions of chaotic orbits and, at the same time, are stable. That is specially true for cuspy models of elliptical galaxies which seem to best represent real galaxies. I argue here that there is no physical impediment to build such models and that the difficulty lies in the method of Schwarzschild, widely used to obtain such models. Actually, I show that there is no problem in obtaining selfconsistent models of elliptical galaxies, even cuspy ones, that contain very high fractions of chaotic orbits and are, nevertheless, highly stable over time intervals of the order of a Hubble time.
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