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Hydrothermal Carbonization of Nonylphenol Ethoxylates Waste Liquid for Energy Source Generation  [PDF]
Yongquan Ge, Wenqi Zhang, Gang Xue, Pinhua Rao
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2015.613101
Abstract: Nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPEOs) are widely used as nonionic surfactants in many industry fields. High concentration NPEOs waste water is produced in some production processes. It is often treated to realize reduction by distillation. Therefore, NPEOs waste liquid with higher concentration is produced and it is difficult to be treated by traditional water treatment process. In this study, hydrothermal carbonization process was used to convert NPEOs waste liquid to carbonaceous product (hydrochar) with sulfuric acid as additive in 24 h at 200°C. The hydrochar was characterized by scanning electron microscope, Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer and thermogravimetric analysis. The element composition and the high heat value of the hydrochar were similar to lignite, showing that it could be used as an alternative fuel.
Temporal trend of organic chlorinated pesticides residues in soils of orchard, Beijing

SHI Yajuan~,

环境科学学报 , 2005,
Abstract: With barren and vegetable soils as control, in 1993 and 2003, the concentrations of Organic Chlorinated Pesticides (OCPs) were measured in topsoils of a selected orchard in Beijing, which was divided into old and new orchard groups, according to the different cultivation history. The results indicated that OCPs (HCHs and DDTs) degraded greatly in the 20 years after the prohibition of their usage. And the levels of total DDTs and HCHs in the old orchard were significantly higher (P<0.05) than those in the new. Moreover, the residual levels of HCHs and DDTs in the orchard were higher than those in barren and vegetable soils (P<0.05). The pollution potential was assessed on the basis of environmental limits of the greenfood production area in China. New orchard was suitable for the production of greenfood, while old orchard was not suitable, due to relatively higher DDT and HCH pollution.
Concederations Concerning the Formation of Non volatile Chlorinated Organic Compounds in the Chlorination Process of Water  [PDF]
Hamdan Al-Ebaisat,Mazen Nayef AL-Amairem
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: In this study, the influence of organic precursors concentration and nature, chlorine dose, pH, contact time and temperature on organic non-volatile compounds occurrence (TOCINV) as a result of certain waters chlorination was investigated. The quantity of organic chlorinated compounds increased with the increase of the chlorine-resorcinol ratio, the maximum values being obtained for the 10-12.8 chlorine-resorcinol ratio. The synthetic waters used for the testing had a content of humic acids ranging between 10-30 mg dm-3 humic acids. Using a dose of 30 mg dm-3 chlorine and 30 mg dm-3 humic acids at constant pH and temperature values, the contract time was varied along 0.25-25 h.
Interactively interfacial reaction of iron-reducing bacterium and goethite for reductive dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds
XiaoMin Li,YongTao Li,FangBai Li,ShunGui Zhou,ChunHua Feng,TongXu Liu
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2009, DOI: 10.1007/s11434-009-0475-x
Abstract: The interactively interfacial reactions between the iron-reducing bacterium (Shewanella decolorationis, S12) and iron oxide (α-FeOOH) were investigated to determine reductive dechlorination transformation of chlorinated organic compounds (chloroform and pentachlorophenol). The results showed that the interactive system of S12+ α-FeOOH exhibited relatively high dechlorination rate. By comparison, the S12 biotic system alone had no obvious dechlorination, and the α-FeOOH abiotic system showed low dechlorination rate. The enhanced dechlorination of chloroform and pentachlorophenol in the interactive system of S12+α-FeOOH was derived from the promoted generation of adsorbed Fe(II) by S12. A decrease in redox potential of the Fe(III)/Fe(II) couple in the interactive reaction system was determined by cyclic voltammetry. Our results will give new insight into interactively interfacial reaction between iron-reducing bacterium and iron oxides for degradation of chlorinated organic compounds under anaerobic condition.
The Effect of Organic Borate on the Friction reduction and Antiwear Behaviors of Zinc Dialkyldithiophosphate and Chlorinated Paraffin

Chen Ming,Wang Chengtao,

摩擦学学报 , 1998,
Abstract: Based on the tribological testing and EDS analysis of the friction surface film,the interaction mechanism of borate, chlorinated paraffin and zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) additives was studied. The results show that organic borate functioned as a friction modifier. The concentration of chlorinated paraffin affected the interaction with borate. Calcium petroleum sulphonate served as dispersing agent worsened the antiwear property of borate. ZDDP and borate had a competitive action on the metal surface in the process of friction. This improved the antiwear property of borate. There existed synergistic effect among organic borate, chlorinated paraffin, and ZDDP.
Recovery of Value-Added Products from Hydrothermal Carbonization of Sewage Sludge  [PDF]
Pannarai Saetea,Nakorn Tippayawong
ISRN Chemical Engineering , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/268947
Abstract: This paper is about the conversion of wet waste stream into valuable products via thermal processing. Hydrothermal carbonization of sewage sludge was carried out at 200°C and 2.1?MPa in a closed reactor for 1–6?h. Main products were in solid and liquid phases. The resulting hydrochar was shown to have H/C and O/C ratios moving towards natural lignite, improved energetic content, and adsorption property in terms of iodine number. The aqueous solution was found to contain high concentration of plant food nutrients, especially nitrogen and potassium. They may be desirable for subsequent fuel and chemical production as well as applications in agriculture. The study shows that valuable products can be generated successfully from sewage sludge using hydrothermal carbonization. 1. Introduction Sewage sludge is generated as an inevitable by-product of wastewater treatment activity. Their production is expected to rapidly increase with urbanization and industrial development. In Thailand, for example, about 4,000 tons per day of dry, treated sewage sludge solids is generated. Sewage sludge consists of mostly offensive and toxic substances. It must be disposed of or managed properly, otherwise, serious effects on humans and ecological systems will occur. Several methods can be adopted for the management of sewage sludge, such as landfill disposal, incineration, and utilization in agriculture, but each of these options has important limitations. Both incineration and landfill are troubled by their lowly public image. There are always concerns regarding associated costs and emissions. Application of sewage sludge to agricultural lands is restricted due to possible contamination of the soil and vegetation as well as hazardous consequences for animals and human. The decline of the traditional disposal routes for sewage sludge has created a strong demand for more cost effective and environmentally acceptable alternatives. This has motivated the research community to search for innovative and beneficial use of sewage sludge for years [1, 2]. A very appealing method is hydrothermal carbonization (HTC), also known as subcritical water or hot compressed water carbonization. It is ideal for high moisture content material such as sewage sludge. HTC can be described as a thermochemical process for converting an organic feedstock into value-added products, at moderate temperatures (180–350°C) and pressures (2–10?MPa) in the presence of liquid water. Hydrothermal degradation of organic matter and synthesis of basic chemicals and fuels have recently gained considerable
Cu(II) Extraction in Ionic Liquids and Chlorinated Solvents: Temperature Effect  [PDF]
Raimondo Germani, Maria V. Mancini, Nicoletta Spreti, Pietro Di Profio, Gianfranco Savelli
Green and Sustainable Chemistry (GSC) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/gsc.2011.14024
Abstract: Room temperature ionic liquids have been currently used in liquid/liquid extraction processes in order to substitute conventional organic solvents. In this paper, a series of chlorinated solvents and 1-alkyl-3-me- thylimidazolium-based ionic liquids were selected to study the extraction efficiency of a lipophilic polya- mine 1,1,7,7-tetraethyl-4-tetradecyldiethylenetriamine (TE14DT) towards the model ion Cu(II) in such dif-ferent media. The effect of temperature on the extraction efficiency was also investigated. The metal ion par-tition was found to be strongly dependent on both the nature of the solvent and on the working temperature. The viscosity of ionic liquids and the water content in ionic liquid were found to affect the extraction effi-ciency of TE14DT. The chemical nature of the cation of ionic liquids, and in particular the alkyl chain length on imidazolium ring, also seemed to be important in determining the efficiency of the extraction process. Finally, preliminary experiments on back-extraction of Cu(II) ions from ionic liquid also revealed interesting hints to the development of a continuous transport process.
The performance of activated carbons from sugarcane bagasse, babassu, and coconut shells in removing residual chlorine
Jaguaribe, E. F.;Medeiros, L. L.;Barreto, M. C. S.;Araujo, L. P.;
Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-66322005000100005
Abstract: the capacity of activated carbons obtained from different raw materials, such as sugarcane bagasse, babassu (orbygnia speciosa), and coconut (cocus nucifera) shells, to remove residual chlorine is studied. the influence of particle size and time of contact between particles of activated carbon and the chlorinated solution were taken into account. the adsorptive properties of the activated carbons were measured by gas adsorption (bet method), using an asap 2010 porosimeter, and liquid phase adsorption, employing iodine and methylene blue adsorbates. the activated carbon from sugarcane bagasse was the only adsorbent capable of removing 100% of the residual chlorine.
Effect of Organic Matter on Residual Phosphorus Recovering in a Calcareous soil  [cached]
Zolfi Bavariani,Nouruzi
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 2010,
Abstract: Most part of the applied phosphorus is fixed in the calcareous soil. Some part of residual phosphorus can be recovered by the plants of the following years. It is reported that organic matter is one of most important factors in phsphorus recovering. This expriment was designed in permanent plot to evaluate the effect of organic matter on residual phosphorus recovering in a calcareous soil. The expriment was conducted on randomized complete block design in a factorial manner with three replications in four years. Treatments were consisted of farm yard manure(FYM) in three levels ( 0, 15, and 30 ton ha-1) and three levels of phosphrus ( 0, 90 and 180 kg ha-1 as P2O5 from triple super phosphate (TSP). Phosphorus fertilizer was applied only in the first year of expriment, but FYM was used in all of the years. Onion, canola, bean and spinage were planted in the four years of experiment, respectively. Results showed that maximum yield, P concentratin in plant and soil phosphorus availability were followed by application of FYM and P(residual) together in all of the years. This increase was mainly by direct effect of P in the first year of expriment, but recovered phosphrus by FYM had maximum role in the later years. More than 53% of increase in phosphrus availability in soil and 21% of increase in yield resulted from recovered phosphprus by FYM in the treatment of 30 ton.ha-1 FYM and 180 kg.ha-1 P2O5 together in the last year.
Characterization of biochar from hydrothermal carbonization of bamboo
Daniel Schneider, Marina Escala, Kawin Supawittayayothin, Nakorn Tippayawong
International Journal of Energy and Environment , 2011,
Abstract: This paper presents a preliminary investigation on producing biochar from bamboo using a technique of hydrothermal carbonization. Laboratory scale experimentation to produce carbonaceous materials was carried out. The suspended biomass samples in water were subjected to hydrothermal carbonization at 220 C, 2.2 MPa in a closed vessel for six hours. The resulting products were in solid and liquid phase. The coal-like biochar was found to have rough surface and porous structure. The aqueous solution was found to contain a high concentration of nutrients, especially nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. The study shows that bamboo is an interesting and adequate biomass for the production of biochar with several applications including carbon sequestration.
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