Abstract:
In quantum mechanics, the process of measurement is a subtle interplay between extraction of information and disturbance of the state of the quantum system. A quantum non-demolition (QND) measurement minimizes this disturbance by using a particular system - detector interaction which preserves the eigenstates of a suitable operator of the quantum system. This leads to an ideal projective measurement. We present experiments in which we perform two consecutive measurements on a quantum two -level system, a superconducting flux qubit, by probing the hysteretic behaviour of a coupled nonlinear resonator. The large correlation between the results of the two measurements demonstrates the QND nature of the readout method. The fact that a QND measurement is possible for superconducting qubits strengthens the notion that these fabricated mesoscopic systems are to be regarded as fundamental quantum objects. Our results are also relevant for quantum information processing, where projective measurements are used for protocols like state preparation and error correction.

Abstract:
A geometric approach to quantum mechanics with unitary evolution and non-unitary collapse processes is developed. In this approach the Schrodinger evolution of a quantum system is a geodesic motion on the space of states of the system furnished with an appropriate Riemannian metric. The measuring device is modeled by a perturbation of the metric. The process of measurement is identified with a geodesic motion of state of the system in the perturbed metric. Under the assumption of random fluctuations of the perturbed metric, the Born rule for probabilities of collapse is derived. The approach is applied to a two-level quantum system to obtain a simple geometric interpretation of quantum commutators, the uncertainty principle and Planck's constant. In light of this, a lucid analysis of the double-slit experiment with collapse and an experiment on a pair of entangled particles is presented.

Abstract:
We obtain the finite-temperature unconditional master equation of the density matrix for two coupled quantum dots (CQD) when one dot is subjected to a measurement of its electron occupation number using a point contact (PC). To determine how the CQD system state depends on the actual current through the PC device, we use the so-called quantum trajectory method to derive the zero-temperature conditional master equation. We first treat the electron tunneling through the PC barrier as a classical stochastic point process (a quantum-jump model). Then we show explicitly that our results can be extended to the quantum-diffusive limit when the average electron tunneling rate is very large compared to the extra change of the tunneling rate due to the presence of the electron in the dot closer to the PC. We find that in both quantum-jump and quantum-diffusive cases, the conditional dynamics of the CQD system can be described by the stochastic Schr\"{o}dinger equations for its conditioned state vector if and only if the information carried away from the CQD system by the PC reservoirs can be recovered by the perfect detection of the measurements.

Abstract:
We study the lateral tunneling through the gate-voltage-controlled barrier, which arises as a result of partial elimination of the donor layer of a heterostructure along a fine strip using an atomic force microscope, between edge channels at the depletion-induced edges of a gated two-dimensional electron system. For a sufficiently high barrier a typical current-voltage characteristic is found to be strongly asymmetric and include, apart from a positive tunneling branch, the negative branch that corresponds to the current overflowing the barrier. We establish the barrier height depends linearly on both gate voltage and magnetic field and we describe the data in terms of electron tunneling between the outermost edge channels.

Abstract:
The Zeno time has been calculated for a metastable two-level atom tunneling through a interacting thermal magnetic field. The process of weak measurement has been utilized for the estimation of the timescale. Zeno time has been shown to be temperature dependent. From the calculation it is evident that the Zeno time decreases with the increase of temperature. Moreover, the result restricts the Zeno time to a maximum limiting value, irrespective of how frequent the measurement process is.

Abstract:
A continuous measurement of energy which is sharp (perfect) leads to the quantum Zeno effect (freezing of the state). Only if the quantum measurement is fuzzy, continuous monitoring gives a readout E(t) from which information about the dynamical development of the state vector of the system may be obtained in certain cases. This is studied in detail. Fuzziness is thereby introduced with the help of restricted path integrals equivalent to non-Hermitian Hamiltonians. For an otherwise undisturbed multilevel system it is shown that this measurement represents a model of decoherence. If it lasts long enough, the measurement readout discriminates between the energy levels and the von Neumann state reduction is obtained. For a two-level system under resonance influence (which undergoes in absence of measurement Rabi oscillations between the levels) different regimes of measurement are specified depending on its duration and fuzziness: 1) the Zeno regime where the measurement results in a freezing of the transitions between the levels and 2) the Rabi regime when the transitions maintain. It is shown that in the Rabi regime at the border to the Zeno regime a correlation exists between the time dependent measurement readout and the modified Rabi oscillations of the state of the measured system. Possible realizations of continuous fuzzy measurements of energy are sketched.

Abstract:
We discuss work performed on a quantum two-level system coupled to multiple thermal baths. To evaluate the work, a measurement of photon exchange between the system and the baths is envisioned. In a realistic scenario, some photons remain unrecorded as they are exchanged with baths that are not accessible to the measurement, and thus only partial information on work and heat is available. The incompleteness of the measurement leads to substantial deviations from standard fluctuation relations. We propose a recovery of these relations, based on including the mutual information given by the counting efficiency of the partial measurement. We further present the experimental status of a possible implementation of the proposed scheme, i.e. a calorimetric measurement of work, currently with nearly single-photon sensitivity.

Abstract:
The time-dependent barrier passage of an anomalous damping system is studied via the generalized Langevin equation (GLE) with non-Ohmic memory damping friction tensor and corresponding thermal colored noise tensor describing a particle passing over the saddle point of a two-dimensional quadratic potential energy surface. The time-dependent passing probability and transmission coefficient are analytically obtained by using of the reactive flux method. The long memory aspect of friction is revealed to originate a non-monotonic $\delta$(power exponent of the friction) dependence of the passing probability, the optimal incident angle of the particle and the steady anomalous transmission coefficient. In the long time limit a bigger steady transmission coefficient is obtained which means less barrier recrossing than the one-dimensional case.

Abstract:
The tunneling of composite systems, where breakup may occur during the barrier penetration process is considered in connection with the fusion of halo-like radioactive, neutron- and proton-rich nuclei on heavy targets. The large amount of recent and new data clearly indicates that breakup hinders the fusion at near and below the Coulomb barrier energies. However, clear evidence for the halo enhancements, seems to over ride the breakup hindrance at lower energies, owing, to a large extent, to the extended matter density distribution. In particular we report here that at sub-barrier energies the fusion cross section of the Borromean two-neutron halo nucleus $^{6}$He with the actinide nucleus $^{238}$U is significantly enhanced compared to the fusion of a no-halo $^{6}$He. This conclusion differs from that of the original work, where it was claimed that no such enhancement ensues. This sub-barrier fusion enhancement was also observed in the $^{6}$He + $^{209}$% Bi system. The role of the corresponding easily excitable low lying dipole pygmy resonance in these systems is therefore significant. The consequence of this overall enhanced fusion of halo nuclei at sub-barrier energies, on stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis is evident.

Abstract:
The reactive process of barrier escaping from the metastable potential well is studied together with the extension of Kramers' rate formula to the fractional case. Characteristic quantities are computed for an thimbleful of insight into the near barrier escaping and recrossing dynamics. Where the stationary transmission coefficient is revealed to be larger than the usual cases which implies less barrier recrossing. And the non-monotonic varying of it reveals a close dependence to the fractional exponent $\alpha$. In most cases, the near barrier behavior of the escaping dynamics is equivalent to the diffusion in the two-dimensional non-Ohmic damping system.