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Resonant Structures in the Low-Energy Electron Continuum for Single Ionization of Atoms in the Tunneling Regime  [PDF]
A. Rudenko,K. Zrost,C. D. Schr?ter,V. L. B. de Jesus,B. Feuerstein,R. Moshammer,J. Ullrich
Physics , 2004, DOI: 10.1088/0953-4075/37/24/L03
Abstract: We present results of high-resolution experiments on single ionization of He, Ne and Ar by ultra-short (25 fs, 6 fs) 795 nm laser pulses at intensities 0.15-2.0x10^15 W/cm^2. We show that the ATI-like pattern can survive deep in the tunneling regime and that the atomic structure plays an important role in the formation of the low-energy photoelectron spectra even at high intensities. The absence of ponderomotive shifts, the splitting of the peaks and their degeneration for few-cycle pulses indicate that the observed structures originate from a resonant process.
Whistler intensities above thunderstorms
J. Fiser, J. Chum, G. Diendorfer, M. Parrot,O. Santolik
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2010,
Abstract: We report a study of penetration of the VLF electromagnetic waves induced by lightning to the ionosphere. We compare the fractional hop whistlers recorded by the ICE experiment onboard the DEMETER satellite with lightning detected by the EUCLID detection network. To identify the fractional hop whistlers, we have developed software for automatic detection of the fractional-hop whistlers in the VLF spectrograms. This software provides the detection times of the fractional hop whistlers and the average amplitudes of these whistlers. Matching the lightning and whistler data, we find the pairs of causative lightning and corresponding whistler. Processing data from ~200 DEMETER passes over the European region we obtain a map of mean amplitudes of whistler electric field as a function of latitudinal and longitudinal difference between the location of the causative lightning and satellite magnetic footprint. We find that mean whistler amplitude monotonically decreases with horizontal distance up to ~1000 km from the lightning source. At larger distances, the mean whistler amplitude usually merges into the background noise and the whistlers become undetectable. The maximum of whistler intensities is shifted from the satellite magnetic footprint ~1° owing to the oblique propagation. The average amplitude of whistlers increases with the lightning current. At nighttime (late evening), the average amplitude of whistlers is about three times higher than during the daytime (late morning) for the same lightning current.
Energy Correlation in Above-Threshold Nonsequential Double Ionization at 800 nm  [PDF]
Qing Liao,Peixiang Lu
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.82.021403
Abstract: We have investigated the energy correlation of the two electrons from nonsequential double ionization of helium atom in 800 nm laser fields at intensities below the recollision threshold by quantum calculations. The circular arcs structure of the correlated electron momentum spectra reveals a resonant double ionization process in which the two electrons transit from doubly excited states into continuum states by simultaneously absorbing and sharing excess energy in integer units of the photon energy. Coulomb repulsion between the two electrons in continuum states is responsible for the dominant back-to-back electron emission and two intensity-independent cutoffs in the two-electron energy spectra.
Origin of the Low Energy Structure in Above Threshold Ionization  [PDF]
Atef S. Titi,Gordon W. F. Drake
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: We present an ab initio analytic theory to account for both the very low energy structure (VLES) [C. Y. Wu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 043001 (2012); W. Quan et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093001 (2009)], and the low energy structure (LES) [W. Quan et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093001 (2009); C.I. Blaga et al., Nat. Phys. 5, 335 2009)] of above threshold ionization. The origin of both VLES and LES lies in a forward scattering mechanism by the Coulomb potential. We parameterize the S matrix in terms of ?, which is the displacement of the the classical motion of an electron in the laser field. When ? = 0, the S matrix is singular, which we attribute to be forward Coulomb scattering without absorption of light quanta. By devising a regularization scheme, the resulting S matrix is non-singular when ? = 0, and the origins of VLES and LES are revealed. We attribute VLES to multiple forward scattering of near-threshold electrons by the Coulomb potential, with no absorption of light quanta, signifying the role of the Coulomb threshold effect. We attribute LES to be due to the combined role of the Coulomb threshold effect and rescattering in the forward direction by the Coulomb potential with the absorption of light quanta. A comparison of theory with experiment confirms these conclusions. Further more, recently Dura et al. [Sci. Rep. 3, 2675 (2013)] reported the detection of slow electrons at near zero momentum, at 1.3 meV, which is much below the VLES, almost at threshold. Our theoretical formulation gives rise to slow electrons at near zero momentum and at threshold. In addition, for circularly polarized fields, it conserves the angular momentum in the ionization process which necessitate the disappearance of the VLES, LES and the slow electrons near threshold.
Intracycle and Intercycle Interferences in Above-Threshold Ionization: the Time Grating  [PDF]
Diego G. Arbo,Kenichi L. Ishikawa,Klaus Schiessl,Emil Persson,Joachim Burgdoerfer
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.81.021403
Abstract: Within a semiclassical description of above-threshold ionization (ATI) we identify the interplay between intracycle and intercycle interferences. The former is imprinted as a modulation envelope on the discrete multiphoton peaks formed by the latter. This allows to unravel the complex interference pattern observed for the full solution of the time-dependent Schr\"odinger equation (TDSE) in terms of diffraction at a grating in the time domain. These modulations can be clearly seen in the dependence of the ATI spectra on the laser wavelength. Shifts in energy modulation result from the effect of the long Coulomb tail of the atomic potential.
Above threshold ionization by few-cycle spatially inhomogeneous fields  [PDF]
M. F. Ciappina,J. A. Pérez-Hernández,T. Shaaran,J. Biegert,R. Quidant,M. Lewenstein
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.86.023413
Abstract: We present theoretical studies of above threshold ionization (ATI) produced by spatially inhomogeneous fields. This kind of field appears as a result of the illumination of plasmonic nanostructures and metal nanoparticles with a short laser pulse. We use the time-dependent Schr\"odinger equation (TDSE) in reduced dimensions to understand and characterize the ATI features in these fields. It is demonstrated that the inhomogeneity of the laser electric field plays an important role in the ATI process and it produces appreciable modifications to the energy-resolved photoelectron spectra. In fact, our numerical simulations reveal that high energy electrons can be generated. Specifically, using a linear approximation for the spatial dependence of the enhanced plasmonic field and with a near infrared laser with intensities in the mid- 10^{14} W/cm^{2} range, we show it is possible to drive electrons with energies in the near-keV regime. Furthermore, we study how the carrier envelope phase influences the emission of ATI photoelectrons for few-cycle pulses. Our quantum mechanical calculations are supported by their classical counterparts.
Wave-packet propagation based calculation of above-threshold ionization in the x-ray regime  [PDF]
Matthew Tilley,Antonia Karamatskou,Robin Santra
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1088/0953-4075/48/12/124001
Abstract: We investigate the multi-photon process of above-threshold ionization for the light elements hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen in the hard x-ray regime. Numerical challenges are discussed and by comparing Hartree-Fock-Slater calculations to configuration-interaction-singles results we justify the mean-field potential approach in this regime. We present a theoretical prediction of two-photon above-threshold-ionization cross sections for the mentioned elements. Moreover, we study how the importance of above-threshold ionization varies with intensity. We find that for carbon, at x-ray intensities around $10^{23}{\rm Wcm}^{-2}$, two-photon above-threshold ionization of the K-shell electrons is as probable as one-photon ionization of the L-shell electrons.
Multiphoton resonant ionization of hydrogen atom exposed to two-colour laser pulses

Wang Pei-Jie,Fang Yan,

中国物理 B , 2008,
Abstract: This paper studies the multiphoton resonant ionization by two-colour laser pulses in the hydrogen atom by solving the time-dependent Schr\"odinger equation. By fixing the parameters of fundamental laser field and scanning the frequency of second laser field, it finds that the ionization probability shows several resonance peaks and is also much larger than the linear superposition of probabilities by applying two lasers separately. The enhancement of the ionization happens when the system is resonantly pumped to the excited states by absorbing two or more colour photons non-sequentially.
Intensity-Resolved Above Threshold Ionization of Xenon with Short Laser Pulses  [PDF]
Nathan A. Hart,James Strohaber,Gamze Kaya,Necati Kaya,Alexandre A. Kolomenskii,Hans A. Schuessler
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.89.053414
Abstract: We present intensity-resolved above threshold ionization (ATI) spectra of xenon using an intensity scanning and deconvolution technique. Experimental data were obtained with laser pulses of 58 fs and central wavelength of 800 nm from a chirped-pulse amplifier. Applying a deconvolution algorithm, we obtained spectra that have higher contrast and are in excellent agreement with characteristic 2 $U_p$ and 10 $U_p$ cutoff energies contrary to that found for raw data. The retrieved electron ionization probability is consistent with the presence of a second electron from double ionization. This recovered ionization probability is confirmed with a calculation based on the PPT tunneling ionization model [Perelomov, Popov, and Terent'ev, Sov. Phys. JETP 23, 924 (1966)]. Thus, the measurements of photoelectron yields and the proposed deconvolution technique allowed retrieval of more accurate spectroscopic information from the ATI spectra and ionization probability features that are usually concealed by volume averaging.
Effects of orientation and alignment in high-harmonic generation and above threshold ionization  [PDF]
C. B. Madsen,A. S. Mouritzen,T. K. Kjeldsen,L. B. Madsen
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.76.035401
Abstract: When molecules interact with intense light sources of femtosecond or shorter duration the rotational degrees of freedom are frozen during the response to the strong nonperturbative interaction. We show how the frozen degrees of freedom affect the measurable signals in high-harmonic generation and above threshold ionization. High-harmonic generation exhibits optical coherence in the signal from different orientations of the molecule. For ionization, the contributions from different orientations are added incoherently. The effects are demonstrated for realistic alignment and orientation schemes.
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