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Extreme Nonlinear Phenomena in NbN Superconducting Stripline Resonators  [PDF]
Eran Arbel-Segev,Baleegh Abdo,Oleg Shtempluck,Eyal Buks
Physics , 2006,
Abstract: We study a microwave superconducting stripline resonator made of NbN on a Sapphire wafer. Novel, self-sustained modulation of the reflected power off the resonator, at frequencies of up to 60MHz, has been recently reported. Here we show experimentally that near the self modulation threshold, the device exhibits a giant nonlinearity, which manifests itself in an extremely high intermodulation gain, accompanied by a very strong noise squeezing and period doubling of various orders. Such a device is highly suitable for serving as a readout device in quantum data processing systems.
Observation of Bifurcations and Hysteresis in Nonlinear NbN Superconducting Microwave Resonators  [PDF]
Baleegh Abdo,Eran Segev,Oleg Shtempluck,Eyal Buks
Physics , 2005, DOI: 10.1109/TASC.2006.881823
Abstract: In this paper we report some extraordinary nonlinear dynamics measured in the resonance curve of NbN superconducting stripline microwave resonators. Among the nonlinearities observed: aburpt bifurcations in the resonance response at relatively low input powers, asymmetric resonances, multiple jumps within the resonance band, resonance frequency drift, frequency hysteresis, hysteresis loops changing direction and critical coupling phenomenon. Weak links in the NbN grain structure are hypothesized as the source of the nonlinearities.
Microwave transmissions through superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators with different coupling configurations  [PDF]
Zhang Si-Lei,Li Hai-Jie,L. F. Wei,Fang Yu-Rong,Wang Yi-Wen,Zhou Pin-Jia,Wei Qiang,Cao Chun-Hai,Xiong Xiang-Zheng
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: We design and fabricate two types of superconducting niobium coplanar waveguide microwave resonators with different coupling capacitors on high purity Si substrates. Their microwave transmissions are measured at the temperatures of 20 mK. It is found that these two types of resonators possess significantly-different loaded quality factors; one is $5.6\times{10}^{3}$, and the other is $4.0\times{10}^{4}$. The measured data are fitted well by classical ABCD matrix approach. We found that the transmission peak deviates from the standard Lorentizian with a frequency broadening.
Surface-resistance measurements using superconducting stripline resonators  [PDF]
Daniel Hafner,Martin Dressel,Marc Scheffler
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1063/1.4856475
Abstract: We present a method to measure the absolute surface resistance of conductive samples at a set of GHz frequencies with superconducting lead stripline resonators at temperatures 1- 6K. The stripline structure can easily be applied for bulk samples and allows direct calculation of the surface resistance without the requirement of additional calibration measurements or sample reference points. We further describe a correction method to reduce experimental background on high-Q resonance modes by exploiting TEM-properties of the external cabling. We then show applications of this method to the reference materials gold, tantalum, and tin, which include the anomalous skin effect and conventional superconductivity. Furthermore, we extract the complex optical conductivity for an all-lead stripline resonator to find a coherence peak and the superconducting gap of lead.
Loss mechanisms in superconducting thin film microwave resonators  [PDF]
Jan Goetz,Frank Deppe,Max Haeberlein,Friedrich Wulschner,Christoph W. Zollitsch,Sebastian Meier,Michael Fischer,Peter Eder,Edwar Xie,Kirill G. Fedorov,Edwin P. Menzel,Achim Marx,Rudolf Gross
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: We present a systematic analysis of the internal losses of superconducting coplanar waveguide microwave resonators based on niobium thin films on silicon substrates. At millikelvin temperatures and low power, we find that the characteristic saturation power of two-level state (TLS) losses shows a pronounced temperature dependence. Furthermore, TLS losses can also be introduced by Nb/Al interfaces in the center conductor, when the interfaces are not positioned at current nodes of the resonator. In addition, we confirm that TLS losses can be reduced by proper surface treatment. For resonators including Al, quasiparticle losses become relevant above \SI{200}{\milli\kelvin}. Finally, we investigate how losses generated by eddy currents in the conductive material on the backside of the substrate can be minimized by using thick enough substrates or metals with high conductivity on the substrate backside.
Dephasing due to Intermode Coupling in Superconducting Stripline Resonators  [PDF]
Eyal Buks,Bernard Yurke
Physics , 2005, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.73.023815
Abstract: The nonlinearity exhibited by the kinetic inductance of a superconducting stripline couples stripline resonator modes together in a manner suitable for quantum non-demolition measurement of the number of photons in a given resonator mode. Quantum non-demolition measurement is accomplished by coherently driving another resonator mode, referred to as the detector mode, and measuring its response. We show that the sensitivity of such a detection scheme is directly related to the dephasing rate induced by such an intermode coupling. We show that high sensitivity is expected when the detector mode is driven into the nonlinear regime and operated close to a point where critical slowing down occurs.
Signal Amplification in NbN Superconducting Resonators via Stochastic Resonance  [PDF]
Baleegh Abdo,Eran Arbel-Segev,Oleg Shtempluck,Eyal Buks
Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1016/j.physleta.2007.05.103
Abstract: We exploit nonlinearity in NbN superconducting stripline resonators, which is originated by local thermal instability, for studying stochastic resonance. As the resonators are driven into instability, small amplitude modulated (AM) microwave signals are amplified with the aid of injected white noise. The dependence of the signal amplification on the modulation amplitude and the modulation frequency is examined and compared with theory.
Prospects of employing superconducting stripline resonators for studying the dynamical Casimir effect experimentally  [PDF]
Eran Arbel-Segev,Baleegh Abdo,Oleg Shtempluck,Eyal Buks,Bernard Yurke
Physics , 2006,
Abstract: We discuss the prospects of employing an NbN superconducting microwave stripline resonator for studying the dynamical Casimir effect experimentally. Preliminary experimental results, in which optical illumination is employed for modulating the resonance frequencies of the resonator, show that such a system is highly promising for this purpose. Moreover, we discuss the undesirable effect of heating which results from the optical illumination, and show that degradation in noise properties can be minimized by employing an appropriate design.
Thermal Instability and Self-Sustained Modulation in Superconducting NbN Stripline Resonators  [PDF]
Eran Arbel-Segev,Baleegh Abdo,Oleg Shtempluck,Eyal Buks
Physics , 2006,
Abstract: We study theoretically and experimentally the response of a microwave superconducting stripline resonator, integrated with a microbridge, to a monochromatic injected signal. We find that there is a certain range of driving parameters, in which a novel nonlinear phenomenon immerges, and self-sustained modulation of the reflected power off the resonator is generated by the resonator. A theoretical model which attributes the self modulation to a thermal instability yields a good agreement with the experimental results.
Hidden symmetries in deformed microwave resonators  [PDF]
Joseph Samuel,Abhishek Dhar
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.66.044102
Abstract: We explain the ``Hidden symmetries'' observed in wavefunctions of deformed microwave resonators in recent experiments.We also predict that other such symmetries can be seen in microwave resonators.
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