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Circularization of Tidally Disrupted Stars around Spinning Supermassive Black Holes  [PDF]
Kimitake Hayasaki,Nicholas C. Stone,Abraham Loeb
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: We study the circularization of tidally disrupted stars on bound orbits around spinning supermassive black holes by performing three-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations with Post-Newtonian corrections. Our simulations reveal that debris circularization depends sensitively on the efficiency of radiative cooling. There are two stages in debris circularization if radiative cooling is inefficient: first, the stellar debris streams self-intersect due to relativistic apsidal precession; shocks at the intersection points thermalize orbital energy and the debris forms a geometrically thick, ring-like structure around the black hole. The ring rapidly spreads via viscous diffusion, leading to the formation of a geometrically thick accretion disk. In contrast, if radiative cooling is efficient, the stellar debris circularizes due to self-intersection shocks and forms a geometrically thin ring-like structure. In this case, the dissipated energy can be emitted during debris circularization as a precursor to the subsequent tidal disruption flare. The possible radiated energy is up to ~2*10^{52} erg for a 1 Msun star orbiting a 10^6 Msun black hole. We also find that a retrograde (prograde) black hole spin causes the shock-induced circularization timescale to be shorter (longer) than that of a non-spinning black hole in both cooling cases. The circularization timescale is remarkably long in the radiatively efficient cooling case, and is also sensitive to black hole spin. Specifically, Lense-Thirring torques cause dynamically important nodal precession, which significantly delays debris circularization. On the other hand, nodal precession is too slow to produce observable signatures in the radiatively inefficient case. We also discuss the relationship between our simulations and the parabolic TDEs that are characteristic of most stellar tidal disruptions.
Probing Intermediate Mass Black Holes With Optical Emission Lines from Tidally Disrupted White Dwarfs  [PDF]
Drew Clausen,Michael Eracleous
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/726/1/34
Abstract: We calculate the emission line spectrum produced by the debris released when a white dwarf (WD) is tidally disrupted by an intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH; $M\sim 10^{2}-10^{5}\msun$) and we explore the possibility of using the emission lines to identify such events and constrain the properties of the IMBH. To this end, we adopt and adapt the techniques developed by Strubbe & Quataert to study the optical emission lines produced when a main sequence (MS) star is tidally disrupted by a supermassive black hole. WDs are tidally disrupted outside of the event horizon of a $< 10^{5}\msun$ black hole, which makes these tidal disruption events good signposts of IMBHs. We focus on the optical and UV emission lines produced when the accretion flare photoionizes the stream of debris that remains unbound during the disruption. We find that the spectrum is dominated by lines due to ions of C and O, the strongest of which are \ion{C}{4} $\lambda$1549 at early times and [\ion{O}{3}] $\lambda$5007 at later times. Furthermore, we model the profile of the emission lines in the [\ion{O}{3}] $\lambda\lambda$4959, 5007 doublet and find that it is highly asymmetric with velocity widths of up to $\sim 2500 \rm{\;km\;s^{-1}}$, depending on the properties of the WD-IMBH system and the orientation of the observer. Finally, we compare the models with observations of X-ray flares and optical emission lines in the cores of globular clusters and propose how future observations can test if these features are due to a WD that has been tidally disrupted by an IMBH.
A relativistic jetted outburst from a massive black hole fed by a tidally disrupted star  [PDF]
Joshua S. Bloom,Dimitrios Giannios,Brian D. Metzger,S. Bradley Cenko,Daniel A. Perley,Nathaniel R. Butler,Nial R. Tanvir,Andrew J. Levan,Paul T. O' Brien,Linda E. Strubbe,Fabio De Colle,Enrico Ramirez-Ruiz,William H. Lee,Sergei Nayakshin,Eliot Quataert,Andrew R. King,Antonino Cucchiara,James Guillochon,Geoffrey C. Bower,Andrew S. Fruchter,Adam N. Morgan,Alexander J. van der Horst
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1126/science.1207150
Abstract: While gas accretion onto some massive black holes (MBHs) at the centers of galaxies actively powers luminous emission, the vast majority of MBHs are considered dormant. Occasionally, a star passing too near a MBH is torn apart by gravitational forces, leading to a bright panchromatic tidal disruption flare (TDF). While the high-energy transient Swift J164449.3+573451 ("Sw 1644+57") initially displayed none of the theoretically anticipated (nor previously observed) TDF characteristics, we show that the observations (Levan et al. 2011) suggest a sudden accretion event onto a central MBH of mass ~10^6-10^7 solar masses. We find evidence for a mildly relativistic outflow, jet collimation, and a spectrum characterized by synchrotron and inverse Compton processes; this leads to a natural analogy of Sw 1644+57 with a smaller-scale blazar. The phenomenologically novel Sw 1644+57 thus connects the study of TDFs and active galaxies, opening a new vista on disk-jet interactions in BHs and magnetic field generation and transport in accretion systems.
Evolution of Debris of a Tidally Disrupted Star by a Massive Black Hole: Development of a Hybrid Scheme of the SPH and TVD Methods  [PDF]
Hyung Mok Lee,Sungsoo S. Kim
Physics , 1996,
Abstract: The evolution of the stellar debris after tidal disruption due to the super massive black hole's tidal force is difficult to solve numerically because of the large dynamical range of the problem. We developed an SPH (Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics) - TVD (Total Variation Diminishing) hybrid code in which the SPH is used to cover a widely spread debris and the TVD is used to compute the stream collision more accurately. While the code in the present form is not sufficient to obtain desired resoultion, it could provide a useful tool in studying the aftermath of the stellar disruption by a massive black hole.
Emission lines from tidally disrupted white dwarfs and other evolved stars  [cached]
Clausen D.,Eracleous M.,Sigurdsson S.,Irwin J.A.
EPJ Web of Conferences , 2012, DOI: 10.1051/epjconf/20123901005
Abstract: When a black hole tidally disrupts a star, accretion of the debris will produce a luminous flare and reveal the presence of a dormant black hole. The accretion flare can also photoionize a portion of the post-disruption debris. We present models of the emission line spectrum produced in the debris released when a white dwarf or a horizontal branch star is tidally disrupted by an intermediate-mass black hole, and discuss the possibility of using the emission lines to identify such events and constrain the properties of the black hole. We also compare the white dwarf disruption models with observations of white dwarf tidal disruption candidates in globular clusters associated with NGC 4472 and NGC 1399. The bright [O III] lines observed in each system are consistent with these models, but there are some drawbacks to interpreting these sources as tidally disrupted white dwarfs. On the other hand, models of the emission line spectrum produced when a horizontal branch star is disrupted by a ~ 100 M black hole are in good agreement with the source in the NGC 1399 globular cluster. Finally, we describe light curves for the emission lines produced in the debris of a tidally disrupted helium core. The modeled light curves are consistent with the recent observations of Gezari et al. (2012).
Collision of spinning black holes in the close limit  [PDF]
Gaurav Khanna
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.63.124007
Abstract: In this paper we consider the collision of spinning holes using first order perturbation theory of black holes (Teukolsky formalism). With these results (along with ones, we published in the past) one can predict the properties of the gravitational waves radiated from the late stage inspiral of two spinning, equal mass black holes. Also we note that the energy radiated by the head-on collision of two spinning holes with spins (that are equal and opposite) aligned along the common axis is more than the case in which the spins are perpendicular to the axis of the collision.
The Collision of Two Black Holes  [PDF]
Peter Anninos,David Hobill,Edward Seidel,Larry Smarr,Wai-Mo Suen
Physics , 1993, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.71.2851
Abstract: We study the head-on collision of two equal mass, nonrotating black holes. We consider a range of cases from holes surrounded by a common horizon to holes initially separated by about $20M$, where $M$ is the mass of each hole. We determine the waveforms and energies radiated for both the $\ell = 2$ and $\ell=4$ waves resulting from the collision. In all cases studied the normal modes of the final black hole dominate the spectrum. We also estimate analytically the total gravitational radiation emitted, taking into account the tidal heating of horizons using the membrane paradigm, and other effects. For the first time we are able to compare analytic calculations, black hole perturbation theory, and strong field, nonlinear numerical calculations for this problem, and we find excellent agreement.
Recurring Occultations of RW Aurigae by Coagulated Dust in the Tidally Disrupted Circumstellar Disk  [PDF]
Joseph E. Rodriguez,Phillip A. Reed,Robert J. Siverd,Joshua Pepper,Keivan G. Stassun,B. Scott Gaudi,David A. Weintraub,Thomas G. Beatty,Michael B. Lund,Daniel J. Stevens
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: We present photometric observations of RW Aurigae, a Classical T Tauri system, that reveal two remarkable dimming events. These events are similar to that which we observed in 2010-2011, which was the first such deep dimming observed in RW Aur in a century's worth of photometric monitoring. We suggested the 2010-2011 dimming was the result of an occultation of the star by its tidally disrupted circumstellar disk. In 2012-2013, the RW Aur system dimmed by ~0.7 mag for ~40 days and in 2014/2015 the system dimmed by ~2 mag for >250 days. The ingress/egress duration measurements of the more recent events agree well with those from the 2010-2011 event, providing strong evidence that the new dimmings are kinematically associated with the same occulting source. Therefore, we suggest that both the 2012-2013 and 2014-2015 dimming events, measured using data from the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope and the Kutztown University Observatory, are also occultations of RW Aur A by tidally disrupted circumstellar material. Recent hydrodynamical simulations of the eccentric fly-by of RW Aur B suggest the occulting body to be a bridge of material connecting RW Aur A and B. These simulations suggest the possibility of additional occultations, supported by the observations presented in this work. The color evolution of the dimmings suggest that the tidally stripped disk material includes dust grains ranging in size from small grains at the leading edge, typical of star forming regions, to large grains, ices or pebbles producing grey or nearly grey extinction deeper within the occulting material. It is not known whether this material represents arrested planet building prior to the tidal disruption event, or perhaps accelerated planet building as a result of the disruption event, but in any case the evidence suggests the presence of advanced planet building material in the space between RW Aur A and B.
The new model of a tidally disrupted star: further development and relativistic calculations  [PDF]
P. B. Ivanov,M. A. Chernyakova,I. D. Novikov
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.2003.06028.x
Abstract: In this paper we develop the new semi-analitical model of a tidally perturbed or tidally disrupted star proposed recently by two of us. This model is effectively a one dimensional Lagrangian model and it can be evolved numerically much faster that the conventional 3D models. A self-consistent derivation of the dynamical equations of the model is performed and several important theorems about the dynamics of the model are proved without any particular assumption about the equation of state of the stellar gas. The dynamical equations are solved numerically for the case of $n=1.5$ polytropic star evolving in the relativistic field of a $10^7M_{\odot}$ Kerr black hole. Some results of these calculations are compared with the results of calculations based on finite-difference 3D simulations. The comparison shows a very good agreement between both approaches to the problem. Then we show that the strength of the tidal encounter depends significantly on the relative orientation of the orbital angular momentum of the star and the spin of the black hole.
Occultation of the T Tauri Star RW Aurigae A by its Tidally Disrupted Disk  [PDF]
Joseph E. Rodriguez,Joshua Pepper,Keivan G. Stassun,Robert J. Siverd,Phillip Cargile,Thomas G. Beatty,B. Scott Gaudi
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/0004-6256/146/5/112
Abstract: RW Aur A is a classical T Tauri star, believed to have undergone a reconfiguration of its circumstellar environment as a consequence of a recent fly-by of its stellar companion, RW Aur B. This interaction stripped away part of the circumstellar disk of RW Aur A, leaving a tidally disrupted arm and a short truncated circumstellar disk. We present photometric observations of the RW Aur system from the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope (KELT) survey showing a long and deep dimming that occurred from September 2010 until March 2011. The dimming has a depth of ~2 magnitudes, a duration of ~180 days and was confirmed by archival observations from American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO). We suggest that this event is the result of a portion of the tidally disrupted disk occulting RW Aur A, specifically a fragment of the tidally disrupted arm. The calculated transverse linear velocity of the occulter is in excellent agreement with the measured relative radial velocity of the tidally disrupted arm. Using simple kinematic and geometric arguments, we show that the occulter cannot be a feature of the RW Aur A circumstellar disk, and we consider and discount other hypotheses. We also place constraints on the thickness and semi-major axis of the portion of the arm that occulted the star.
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