Abstract:
Deformed logarithms and their inverse functions, the deformed exponentials, are important tools in the theory of non-additive entropies and non-extensive statistical mechanics. We formulate and prove counterparts of Golden-Thompson's trace inequality for q-exponentials with parameter q in the interval [1,3].

Abstract:
The Golden-Thompson inequality, ${\rm Tr} \, (e^{A + B}) \le {\rm Tr} \, (e^A e^B)$ for $A,B$ Hermitian matrices, appeared in independent works by Golden and Thompson published in 1965. Both of these were motivated by considerations in statistical mechanics. In recent years the Golden-Thompson inequality has found applications to random matrix theory. In this survey article we detail some historical aspects relating to Thompson's work, giving in particular an hitherto unpublished proof due to Dyson, and correspondence with P\'olya. We show too how the $2 \times 2$ case relates to hyperbolic geometry, and how the original inequality holds true with the trace operation replaced by any unitarily invariant norm. In relation to the random matrix applications, we review its use in the derivation of concentration type lemmas for sums of random matrices due to Ahlswede-Winter, and Oliveira, generalizing various classical results.

Abstract:
We solve the twisted conjugacy problem on Thompson's group F. We also exhibit orbit undecidable subgroups of Aut(F), and give a proof that Aut(F) and Aut_+(F) are orbit decidable provided a certain conjecture on Thompson's group T is true. By using general criteria introduced by Bogopolski, Martino and Ventura in [5], we construct a family of free extensions of F where the conjugacy problem is unsolvable. As a byproduct of our techniques, we give a new proof of a result of Bleak-Fel'shtyn-Goncalves in [4] showing that F has property R_\infty, and which can be extended to show that Thompson's group T also has property R_\infty.

Abstract:
There are two natural metrics defined on an arbitrary convex cone: Thompson's part metric and Hilbert's projective metric. For both, we establish an inequality giving information about how far the metric is from being non-positively curved.

Abstract:
We present a weak majorization inequality and apply it to prove eigenvalue and unitarily invariant norm extensions of a version of the Bohr's inequality due to Vasi\'c and Ke\v{c}ki\'c.

Abstract:
In this short paper, we give a complete and affirmative answer to a conjecture on matrix trace inequalities for the sum of positive semidefinite matrices. We also apply the obtained inequality to derive a kind of generalized Golden-Thompson inequality for positive semidefinite matrices.

Abstract:
The central extension of the Thompson group $T$ that arises in the quantized Teichm\"uller theory is 12 times the Euler class. This extension is obtained by taking a (partial) abelianization of the so-called braided Ptolemy-Thompson group introduced and studied in \cite{FK2}. We describe then the cyclic central extensions of $T$ by means of explicit presentations.

Abstract:
In this paper we investigate the extension of the charged Riemannian Penrose inequality to the case where charges are present outside the horizon. We prove a positive result when the charge densities are compactly supported, and present a counterexample when the charges extend to infinity. We also discuss additional extensions to other matter models.

Abstract:
The classical Bernstein pointwise estimate of the (first) derivative of a univariate algebraic polynomial on an interval has natural extensions to the multivariate setting. However, in several variables the domain of boundedness, even if convex, has a considerable geometric variety. In 1990, Y. Sarantopoulos satisfactorily settled the case of a centrally symmetric convex body by a method we may call "the method of inscribed ellipses." On the other hand, for the general case of nonsymmetric convex bodies we are only within a constant factor of an exact inequality. The best known results suggest relevance of the generalized Minkowski functional, and a natural conjecture for the exact Bernstein factor was formulated with this geometric quantity. This work deals with the most natural and simple nonsymmetric case, that of a standard simplex in , and computes the exact yield of the method of inscribed ellipses. Although the known general estimates of the Bernstein factor are improved for the simplex here, we find that not even the exact yield of the inscribed ellipse method reaches the conjecture. However, we also show that for an arbitrary convex body the subset of ridge polynomials satisfies the conjecture.