Abstract:
We study local moment formation for adatoms on bilayer graphene (BLG) within a mean-field theory of the Anderson impurity model. The wavefunctions of the BLG electrons induce strong particle-hole asymmetry and band dependence of the hybridization, which is shown to result in unusual features in the impurity model phase diagram. We also study the effect of varying the chemical potential, as well as varying an electric field perpendicular to the bilayer; the latter modifies the density of states of electrons in BLG and, more significantly, shifts the impurity energy. We show that this leads to regimes in the impurity phase diagram where local moments can be turned on or off by applying modest external electric fields. Finally, we show that the RKKY interaction between local moments can be varied by tuning the chemical potential (as has also been suggested in monolayer graphene) or, more interestingly, by tuning the electric field so that it induces changes in the band structure of BLG.

Abstract:
We study the property of a magnetic impurity on a single-layer graphene within an Anderson impurity model. Due to the vanishing local density of states at the Fermi level in graphene, the impurity spin cannot be effectively screened out. Treating the problem within the Gutzwiller approximation, we found a region in the parameter space of $U$-$E^f$ where the impurity is in the local moment state, which is characterized by a zero effective hybridization between the bath electron and the magnetic impurity. Here $U$ is the onsite Coulomb repulsion of the impurity electrons and $E^f$ the impurity energy level. The competition between $U$ and $E^f$ is also discussed. While larger $U$ reduces double occupation and favors local moment formation, a deeper impurity level prefers double occupation and a nonzero hybridization and thus a Kondo screened state. For a fixed $U$, by continuously lowering the impurity level, the impurity first enters from a Kondo screened state into a local moment state and then departs from this state and re-enters into the Kondo screened state.

Abstract:
We study the local moment formation and the Kondo effect at single-atom vacancies in Graphene. We develop a model accounting for the vacancy reconstruction as well as non-planarity effects induced by strain and/or temperature. Thus, we find that the dangling $\sigma$ orbital localized at the vacancy is allowed to strongly hybridize with the $\pi$-band since the scattering with the vacancy turns the hybridization into singular function of the energy ($\sim [|\epsilon| \ln^2 \epsilon/D]^{-1}$, $D\sim$ the bandwidth). This leads to several new types of impurity phases, which control the magnitude of the vacancy magnetic moment and the possibility of Kondo effect depending on the strength of the local Coulomb interactions, the Hund's rule coupling, the doping level, and the degree of particle-symmetry breaking.

Abstract:
We employ the Green's function technique to investigate the vacancy-induced quasi-localized magnetic moment formation in mono-layer graphene starting with the Dirac Hamiltonian, which focuses on the {\pi}- orbitals only, involving the nearest neighbor(NN)(t) and moderate second neighbor(SN)(t' < t/3) hopping integrals. The vacancy defect is modeled by the addition of the on-site perturbation potential to the Hamiltonian. We find that, when (t'/t) << 1, the vacancy induced {\pi}-state at the zero of energy(zero-mode state(ZMS)) does not inhabit the minority sub-lattice due to the strong scalar potential induced by the vacancy(the ZMSs get lodged in the majority sub-lattice) whereas, when (t'/t) is increased, the ZMS is somewhat suppressed. This shows that, not only the shift of the Fermi energy away from the linearly-dispersive Dirac points, the issue of this topological localization is also hinged on the ratio (t'/t). Furthermore, when a vacancy is present, the three sp2- hybridized {\sigma} states of each of the three nearest-neighbor carbon atoms, forming a carbon triangle surrounding the vacancy, are close to the Fermi energy (EF). The Hund's coupling between these {\sigma} electrons and the remaining electron which occupies the {\pi} state spin polarizes the {\pi} state leading to local moment formation close to EF. Since the system at the Fermi level has low electronic density, there is poor screening of such magnetic moments. This may lead to a high Curie temperature for such vacancy-induced moments.

Abstract:
Exciton instability in graphene bilayer systems is studied in the case of a short-ranged Coulomb interaction and a finite voltage difference between the layers. Self-consistent exciton gap equations are derived and solved numerically and analytically under controlled approximation. We obtain that a critical strength of the Coulomb interaction exists for the formation of excitons. The critical strength depends on the amount of voltage difference between the layers and on the inter-layer hopping parameter.

Abstract:
This thesis studies how the rudimentary attributes of graphene's charge carriers, and local moments on its surface, can be directly manipulated and controlled with electrostatic potentials. We first consider bilayer graphene subject to a spatially varying electrostatic potential that forms two neighbouring regions with opposite interlayer bias. Along the boundary, 1D chiral "kink" states emerge. We find that these 1D modes behave as a strongly interacting Luttinger liquid whose properties can be tuned via an external gate. Next, we consider superlattices in bilayer graphene. Superlattices are seen to have a more dramatic effect on bilayer graphene than monolayer graphene because the quasi-particles are changed in a fundamental way; the dispersion goes from a quadratic band touching point to linearly dispersing Dirac cones. We illustrate that a 1D superlattice of either the chemical potential or an interlayer bias generates multiple anisotropic Dirac cones. General arguments delineate how certain symmetries protect the Dirac points. We then map the Hamiltonian of an interlayer bias superlattice onto a chain model comprised of "topological" modes. This is followed by another study that considers the effect of a magnetic field on graphene superlattices. We show that magnetotransport measurements in a weak perpendicular magnetic field probe the number of emergent Dirac points and reveal details about the dispersion. In the case of bilayer graphene, we also discuss the properties of kink states in an applied magnetic field. Finally, we investigate local moment formation of adatoms on bilayer graphene using an Anderson impurity model. We identify regions where the local moments can be turned on or off by applying a external electric fields. In addition, we compute the RKKY interaction between local moments and show how it too can be controlled with electric fields.

Abstract:
Bilayer graphene has attracted considerable interest due to the important role played by many-body effects, particularly at low energies. Here we report local compressibility measurements of a suspended graphene bilayer. We find that the energy gaps at filling factors v = 4 do not vanish at low fields, but instead merge into an incompressible region near the charge neutrality point at zero electric and magnetic field. These results indicate the existence of a zero-field ordered state and are consistent with the formation of either an anomalous quantum Hall state or a nematic phase with broken rotational symmetry. At higher fields, we measure the intrinsic energy gaps of broken-symmetry states at v = 0, 1 and 2, and find that they scale linearly with magnetic field, yet another manifestation of the strong Coulomb interactions in bilayer graphene.

Abstract:
Hydrogen adatoms are shown to generate magnetic moments inside single layer graphene. Spin transport measurements on graphene spin valves exhibit a dip in the non-local spin signal as a function of applied magnetic field, which is due to scattering (relaxation) of pure spin currents by exchange coupling to the magnetic moments. Furthermore, Hanle spin precession measurements indicate the presence of an exchange field generated by the magnetic moments. The entire experiment including spin transport is performed in an ultrahigh vacuum chamber, and the characteristic signatures of magnetic moment formation appear only after hydrogen adatoms are introduced. Lattice vacancies also demonstrate similar behavior indicating that the magnetic moment formation originates from pz-orbital defects.

Abstract:
We use the T-matrix approximation to analyze the effect of a localized impurity on the local density of states in mono- and bilayer graphene. For monolayer graphene the Friedel oscillations generated by intranodal scattering obey an inverse-square law, while the internodal ones obey an inverse law. In the Fourier transform this translates into a filled circle of high intensity in the center of the Brillouin zone, and empty circular contours around its corners. For bilayer graphene both types of oscillations obey an inverse law.

Abstract:
Magnetic impurity adsorbed on one of the carbon planes of a bilayer graphene is studied. The formation of the many-body SU(2) and SU(4) resonances close to the bandgap is analyzed within the mean field Kotliar-Ruckenstein slave boson approach. Impact of enhanced hybridization and magnetic instability of bilayer doped near the Van Hove singularity on the screening of magnetic moment is discussed.