Abstract:
We revisit the physics of electron gas bilayers in the quantum Hall regime [Nature, 432 (2004) 691; Science, 305 (2004) 950], where transport and tunneling measurements provided evidence of a superfluid phase being present in the system. Previously, this behavior was explained by the possible formation of a BEC of excitons in the half-filled electron bilayers, where empty states play the role of holes. We discuss the fundamental difficulties with this scenario, and propose an alternative approach based on a treatment of the system as a pseudospin magnet. We show that the experimentally observed tunneling peak can be linked to the XY ferromagnet (FM) to Ising antiferromagnet (AFM) phase transition of the S=1/2 XXZ pseudospin model, driven by the change in total electron density. This transition is accompanied by a qualitative change in the nature of the low energy spin wave dispersion from a gapless linear mode in the XY-FM phase to a gapped, quadratic mode in the Ising-AFM phase.

Abstract:
In certain Mott-insulating dimerized antiferromagnets, triplet excitations of the paramagnetic phase can decay into the two-particle continuum. When such a magnet undergoes a quantum phase transition into a magnetically ordered state, this coupling becomes part of the critical theory provided that the lattice ordering wavevector is zero. One microscopic example is the staggered-dimer antiferromagnet on the square lattice, for which deviations from O(3) universality have been reported in numerical studies. Using both symmetry arguments and microscopic calculations, we show that a non-trivial cubic term arises in the relevant order-parameter quantum field theory, and assess its consequences using a combination of analytical and numerical methods. We also present finite-temperature quantum Monte Carlo data for the staggered-dimer antiferromagnet which complement recently published results. The data can be consistently interpreted in terms of critical exponents identical to that of the standard O(3) universality class, but with anomalously large corrections to scaling. We argue that the two-particle decay of critical triplons, although irrelevant in two spatial dimensions, is responsible for the leading corrections to scaling due to its small scaling dimension.

Abstract:
We establish that the interplay of itinerant fermions with localized magnetic moments on a checkerboard lattice leads to magnetic flux-phases. For weak itineracy the flux-phase is coplanar and the electronic dispersion takes the shape of graphene-like Dirac fermions. Stronger itineracy drives the formation of a non-coplanar, chiral flux-phase, in which the Dirac fermions acquire a topological mass that is proportional to a ferromagnetic spin polarization. Consequently the system self-organizes into a ferromagnetic Quantum Anomalous Hall state in which the direction of its dissipationless edge-currents can be switched by an applied magnetic field.

Abstract:
Motivated by experiments on non-magnetic triangular-lattice Mott insulators, we study one candidate paramagnetic phase, the columnar dimer (or valence-bond) phase. We apply variants of the bond-operator theory to a dimerized and spatially anisotropic spin-1/2 Heisenberg model and determine its zero-temperature phase diagram and the spectrum of elementary triplet excitations (triplons). Depending on model parameters, we find that the minimum of the triplon energy is located at either a commensurate or an incommensurate wavevector. Condensation of triplons at this commensurate-incommensurate transition defines a quantum Lifshitz point, with effective dimensional reduction which possibly leads to non-trivial paramagnetic (e.g. spin-liquid) states near the closing of the triplet gap. We also discuss the two-particle decay of high-energy triplons, and we comment on the relevance of our results for the organic Mott insulator EtMe3P[Pd(dmit)2]2.

Abstract:
We have studied the crossover between thermally assisted and pure quantum tunneling in single crystals of high spin (S=10) uniaxial single molecule magnet Mn12-acetate using micro-Hall effect magnetometry. Magnetic hysteresis experiments have been used toinvestigate the energy levels that determine the magnetization reversal as a function of magnetic field and temperature. These experiments demonstrate that the crossover occurs in a narrow (~0.1 K) or broad (~1 K) temperature interval depending on the magnitude and direction of the applied field. For low external fields applied parallel to the easy axis, the energy levels that dominate the tunneling shift abruptly with temperature. In the presence of a transverse field and/or large longitudinal field these energy levels change with temperature more gradually. A comparison of our experimental results with model calculations of this crossover suggest that there are additional mechanisms that enhance the tunneling rate of low lying energy levels and broaden the crossover for small transverse fields.

Abstract:
We report magnetotransport measurements on a single-layer graphene in pulsed magnetic fields up to $B$ = 53 T. With either electron- or hole-type charge carriers, the Hall resistance $R_{H}$ is quantized into $R_{H}$ = $(h/e^2)\nu ^{-1}$ with $\nu$ = $\pm$2, $\pm$6, and $\pm$10, which demonstrates the observation of half-integer quantum Hall effect (QHE). At $B$ = 50 T, the half-integer QHE is even observed at room temperature in spite of a conventional carrier mobility $\mu$ = 4000 cm$^2$/Vs.

Abstract:
We analyze a possibility of quantum criticality (gaplessness) in dimerized antiferromagnetic two- and three-leg spin-1/2 ladders. Contrary to earlier studies of these models, we examine different dimerization patterns in the ladder. We find that ladders with the columnar dimerization order have lower zero-temperature energies and they are always gapped. For the staggered dimerization order, we find the quantum critical lines, in agreement with earlier analyses. The bond mean-field theory we apply, demonstrates its quantitative accuracy and agrees with available numerical results. We conclude that unless some mechanism for locking dimerization into the energetically less favorable staggered configuration is provided, the dimerized ladders do not order into the phase where the quantum criticality occurs.

Abstract:
The transition from dimerized to uniform phases is studied in terms of spectral weights for spin chains using continuous unitary transformations (CUTs). The spectral weights in the S=1 channel are computed perturbatively around the limit of strong dimerization. We find that the spectral weight is concentrated mainly in the subspaces with a small number of elementary triplets (triplons), even for vanishing dimerization. So, besides spinons, triplons may be used as elementary excitations in spin chains. We conclude that there is no necessity to use fractional excitations in low-dimensional, undoped or doped quantum antiferromagnets.

Abstract:
At low temperatures, the thermal conductivity of spin excitations in a magnetic insulator can exceed that of phonons. However, because they are charge neutral, the spin waves are not expected to display a thermal Hall effect in a magnetic field. Recently, this semiclassical notion has been upended in quantum magnets in which the spin texture has a finite chirality. In the Kagome lattice, the chiral term generates a Berry curvature. This results in a thermal Hall conductivity $\kappa_{xy}$ that is topological in origin. Here we report observation of a large $\kappa_{xy}$ in the Kagome magnet Cu(1-3, bdc) which orders magnetically at 1.8 K. The observed $\kappa_{xy}$ undergoes a remarkable sign-reversal with changes in temperature or magnetic field, associated with sign alternation of the Chern flux between magnon bands. We show that thermal Hall experiments probe incisively the effect of Berry curvature on heat transport.

Abstract:
Dimerized quantum spin systems may appear under several circumstances, e.g\ by a modulation of the antiferromagnetic exchange coupling in space, or in frustrated quantum antiferromagnets. In general, such systems display a quantum phase transition to a N\'eel state as a function of a suitable coupling constant. We present here two path-integral formulations appropriate for spin $S=1/2$ dimerized systems. The first one deals with a description of the dimers degrees of freedom in an SO(4) manifold, while the second one provides a path-integral for the bond-operators introduced by Sachdev and Bhatt. The path-integral quantization is performed using the Faddeev-Jackiw symplectic formalism for constrained systems, such that the measures and constraints that result from the algebra of the operators is provided in both cases. As an example we consider a spin-Peierls chain, and show how to arrive at the corresponding field-theory, starting with both a SO(4) formulation and bond-operators.