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Isolation of Cronobacter spp. (formerly Enterobacter sakazakii) from infant food, herbs and environmental samples and the subsequent identification and confirmation of the isolates using biochemical, chromogenic assays, PCR and 16S rRNA sequencing
Ziad W Jaradat, Qotaiba O Ababneh, Ismail M Saadoun, Nawal A Samara, Abrar M Rashdan
BMC Microbiology , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-9-225
Abstract: In this study, 233 samples of food, infant formula and environment were screened for the presence of Cronobacter spp. in an attempt to find its source. Twenty nine strains were isolated from samples of spices, herbs, infant foods, and dust obtained from household vacuum cleaners. Among the 76 samples of infant food, infant formula, milk powder and non-milk dairy products tested, only one sample of infant food contained Cronobacter spp. (1.4%). The other Cronobacter spp. isolates recovered include two from household vacuum dust, and 26 from 67 samples of herbs and spices. Among the food categories analyzed, herbs and spices harbored the highest number of isolates, indicating plants as a possible reservoir of this pathogen. Initial screening with API 20E test strips yielded 42 presumptive isolates. Further characterization using 3 chromogenic media (α-MUG, DFI and EsPM) and 8 sets of PCR primers detecting ITS (internal transcribed spacer sequences), 16S rRNA, zpx, gluA, gluB, OmpA genes followed by nucleotide sequencing of some PCR amplicons did not confirm the identity of all the isolates as none of the methods proved to be free of both false positives or false negatives. The final confirmation step was done by 16S rRNA sequence analysis identifying only 29 of the 42 isolates as Cronobacter spp.Our studies showed that Cronobacter spp. are highly diverse and share many phenotypic traits with other Enterobacteriaceae members highlighting the need to use several methods to confirm the identity of this pathogen. None of the biochemical, chromogenic or PCR primers proved to be a reliable method for confirmation of the identity of the isolates as all of them gave either false positives or false negatives or both. It is therefore concluded that 16S rRNA sequencing is pivotal to confirm the identity of the isolates.Cronobacter spp. (formerly Enterobacter sakazakii), a member of the Enterobacteriaceae family, are motile, non spore forming, Gram-negative facultative anaerobes.
Asthma and Herbs
H.N. Shiva Prasad,M. Suresh Gupta,Dr. S.Mohan,Dr. M.D.Kharya
Pharmaceutical Reviews , 2005,
Abstract: Man’s existence on this earth has been made possible only because of vitalrole played by the plant kingdom in sustaining his life. Herbs have been thehighly esteemed source of medicine throughout human history. They are widelyused today, is not a throwback to the Dark Ages but an indication that herbsare a growing part of modern, high-tech medicine. About 25-30 percent of today'sprescription drugs contain chemicals derived from plants.Unlike synthetic substances the natural drugs do not give symptomatic relief rather provide complete cure of many diseases. Due to these salient features the importance of herbal drugs has been realized seriously and they are becoming a preferred way of therapy throughout the globe.World Health Organization has recognized the potential of traditional and folk medicines in the management and self-reliance of health care system and currently it is encouraging and promoting the traditional systems in “National Health Care Programmes” of various countries.Herbal therapy provides rational means for the treatment of many diseases such as respiratory problems, gastro-intestinal disorders, cardio-vascular illness, metabolic and degenerative diseases/disorders associated with the aging. Research carried out on herbals in recent past has helped the society in the cure of certain cancers and search is continuing for finding remedies for AIDS and other diseases which so far are considered to be stubborn and incurable from any synthetic molecule.
Seagrass Biomass and Productivity in Seaweed and Non-Seaweed Farming Areas in the East Coast of Zanzibar,
T J Lyimo, E F Mvungi, C Lugomela, M Bj rk
Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science , 2006,
Abstract: Seagrass beds are often subjected to stress resulting from natural and human activities. In this study, the shoot density, biomass and growth characteristics of Thalassia hemprichii and Enhalus acoroides were measured to assess the impact of seaweed farming activities on seagrass meadows at Marumbi, Chwaka Bay and Jambiani in the East Coast of Zanzibar. There was significantly higher T. hemprichii shoot density in non-seaweed areas compared to seaweed farmed areas. However, there were no significant differences in E. acoroides shoot density between seaweed and non-seaweed areas and between the two sites. Also, there was significantly higher total biomass of T. hemprichii in non-seaweed areas compared to seaweed areas. However, there were no significant differences in the total biomass of E. acoroides between seaweed and non-seaweed areas and among the sites. The growth and photosynthetic (ETR and Fv/Fm ratios) characteristics of both T. hemprichii and E. acoroides varied inconsistently between seaweed and non seaweed areas suggesting that there is no effect on seaweed farming to the growth rate of the seagrasses. Thus, the reduced seagrass shoot density and biomass in seaweed farms compared to non-seaweed areas observed in this particular study is most likely to be due to physical disturbances in the farms such as bioturbation or deliberate removal of seagrasses by farmers.
Gamma irradiation versus microbial contamination of Thai medicinal herbs
Wannipa Phianphak,Sirirat Rengpipat,Wichai Cherdshewasart
Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology , 2007,
Abstract: Seventeen species of herbs established in Thai traditional remedies were microbially decontaminated by gamma-irradiation doses of 7.7 and 8.8 kGy. The herb samples were randomly collected four times from producers in Chiangmai during a 1-year period. These were tested, qualitatively and quantitatively, for total aerobic bacteria, Staphylococcus spp., Salmonella spp., coliform bacteria, and fungi before and after gamma treatment. No microorganisms were found after gamma treatment; and the color, aroma, and texture of the herbs remained normal. The applied dose of gamma irradiation was within the regulatory limits in Thailand (<10 kGy) and the main export country (USA< 30 kGy). Gamma irradiation is an effective treatment for microbial decontamination of Thai export herbs.
同步控制双向LLC谐振变换器  [PDF]
江添洋,张军明,汪槱生
电工技术学报 , 2015,
Abstract: 本文提出了一种同步控制的双向LLC谐振变换器.为使变换器在正向,反向工作时拓扑结构相同,在电路中增加了一个辅助电感.该辅助电感除了可以使双向LLC谐振变换器的双向工作特性完全对称外,还可以帮助开关管实现软开关.文章提出的双向LLC谐振变换器结构简单,控制方法易于实现.当变换器开关频率小于谐振频率时,所有开关管均可以实现零电压开通(ZVS);当变换器开关频率大于等于谐振频率时,软开关特性与传统LLC谐振变换器相同.因此变换器具有较高的效率,很适合应用于能量双向流动的场合.同步控制的双向LLC谐振变换器与传统二极管整流的单向LLC谐振变换器的工作特性存在差别,为了精确分析,文章提出了新的等效电路模型,并给出了同步控制双向LLC谐振变换器的电压增益公式和软开关条件.最后通过实验验证了理论分析的结果.
A HMAX with LLC for visual recognition  [PDF]
Kean Hong Lau,Yong Haur Tay,Fook Loong Lo
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: Today's high performance deep artificial neural networks (ANNs) rely heavily on parameter optimization, which is sequential in nature and even with a powerful GPU, would have taken weeks to train them up for solving challenging tasks [22]. HMAX [17] has demonstrated that a simple high performing network could be obtained without heavy optimization. In this paper, we had improved on the existing best HMAX neural network [12] in terms of structural simplicity and performance. Our design replaces the L1 minimization sparse coding (SC) with a locality-constrained linear coding (LLC) [20] which has a lower computational demand. We also put the simple orientation filter bank back into the front layer of the network replacing PCA. Our system's performance has improved over the existing architecture and reached 79.0% on the challenging Caltech-101 [7] dataset, which is state-of-the-art for ANNs (without transfer learning). From our empirical data, the main contributors to our system's performance include an introduction of partial signal whitening, a spot detector, and a spatial pyramid matching (SPM) [14] layer.
LLC谐振变换器效率优化设计  [PDF]
胡海兵,王万宝,孙文进,丁顺,邢岩
中国电机工程学报 , 2013,
Abstract: 由于LLC谐振变换器拓扑具有高效率和高功率密度的优势,广泛应用于DC-DC变换器场合。但是由于谐振过程分析的复杂性,关于谐振回路参数的选择,LLC变换器缺少一种明确的设计方法。在基于工作模态以及谐振腔电流分析的基础上,提出峰值增益配置的优化设计法。通过该方法,变换器可以在要求增益的范围内将导通损耗最小化。搭建一台400W、400V输出,25~38V输入的LLC变换器。为验证本文优化设计方法的正确性,在减少谐振电容的同时采用搜寻的方法依据优化原则重新选择LLC的其他参数,实验结果表明,提出的优化设计法具有更好的性能,样机最高效率超过98%。
Nutritional Value of Seaweed to Ruminants
Roger D. Applegate,Patrick B. Gray
Rangifer , 1995,
Abstract: We compared the nutritional quality (apparent digestible dry matter (ADDM), crude protein, total phenolics, gross energy), of 3 seaweed species (Alaria esculenta, Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus vesiculosis) to that of 3 woody browse species{Acer rubrum, Thuja occidentalis, Abies balsamea), lichen (Usnea spp.), and winter rye (Secale cereals) for ruminants. The ADDM's of the 3 seaweeds (63-80% DM) were 11-167% DM higher and crude protein contents (12.1-14.6% DM) were 68-186% DM higher than the 3 browse species. Seaweeds had lower total phenolics (5.5-10.3% DM) and gross energy (12-15 KJ/g DM), and moderate digestible energy (DE) contents (9-10 KJ/g DM) compared to the browse species. The 3 browse species had ADDM's of 30-57% DM, crude protein contents of 5.1-7.2% DM, total phenolic concentrations of 11.6-16.4% DM, and DE contents of 6-12 KJ/g DM. Winter rye and lichen had the lowest total phenolic concentrations (1.3 and 1.9% DM) of forages examined, and had lower ADDM's (35 and 40% DM), DE contents (6-7 KJ/g DM), and crude protein (7.8 and 5.7% DM) than seaweeds. The relatively high DE and protein contents of seaweed may explain high deer densities of Maine coastal islands where browse availability and use appears to be low.
Families of Frobenius seaweed Lie algebras  [PDF]
Vincent Coll,Colton Magnant,Hua Wang
Mathematics , 2012,
Abstract: We extend the set of known infinite families of Frobenius seaweed Lie subalgebras of $\mathfrak{sl}_{n}$ to include a family which is the first non-trivial general family containing algebras whose associated meanders have an arbitrarily large number of parts.
Influence of Several Fermentation on Seaweed Waste of Feed  [PDF]
Xiaohui Liu, Shu-Ping Zhang, Ling Han, Yue Li
Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems (JSBS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jsbs.2012.24016
Abstract: This paper focuses on several factors on the effects of fermented seaweed feed, and obtains the optimal fermentation process through the analysis of nutrients. Through the experiment we can get, Seaweed waste fermented the best feed when adding 1% of microbial agents and 0.5% of corn powder, fermenting for 15 days.
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