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The Dawes Review 1: Kinematic studies of star-forming galaxies across cosmic time  [PDF]
Karl Glazebrook
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1017/pasa.2013.34
Abstract: The last seven years have seen an explosion in the number of Integral Field galaxy surveys, obtaining resolved 2D spectroscopy, especially at high-redshift. These have taken advantage of the mature capabilities of 8-10 m class telescopes and the development of associated technology such as AO. Surveys have leveraged both high spectroscopic resolution enabling internal velocity measurements and high spatial resolution from AO techniques and sites with excellent natural seeing. For the first time, we have been able to glimpse the kinematic state of matter in young, assembling star-forming galaxies and learn detailed astrophysical information about the physical processes and compare their kinematic scaling relations with those in the local Universe. Observers have measured disc galaxy rotation, merger signatures, and turbulence-enhanced velocity dispersions of gas-rich discs. Theorists have interpreted kinematic signatures of galaxies in a variety of ways (rotation, merging, outflows, and feedback) and attempted to discuss evolution vs. theoretical models and relate it to the evolution in galaxy morphology. A key point that has emerged from this activity is that substantial fractions of high-redshift galaxies have regular kinematic morphologies despite irregular photometric morphologies and this is likely due to the presence of a large number of highly gas-rich discs. There has not yet been a review of this burgeoning topic. In this first Dawes review, I will discuss the extensive kinematic surveys that have been done and the physical models that have arisen for young galaxies at high-redshift.
The MOSDEF Survey: Dynamical and Baryonic Masses and Kinematic Structures of Star-Forming Galaxies at $1.4 \leq z \leq 2.6$  [PDF]
Sedona H. Price,Mariska Kriek,Alice E. Shapley,Naveen A. Reddy,William R. Freeman,Alison L. Coil,Laura de Groot,Irene Shivaei,Brian Siana,Mojegan Azadi,Guillermo Barro,Bahram Mobasher,Ryan L. Sanders,Tom Zick
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: We present a study of the H$\alpha$ gas kinematics for 179 star-forming galaxies at $z\sim2$ from the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field survey. We have developed models to interpret the kinematic measurements from fixed-angle multi-object spectroscopy, using structural parameters derived from CANDELS HST/F160W imaging. For 35 galaxies we measure resolved rotation with a median $(V/\sigma_{v,0})_{R_E}=2.11$. We derive dynamical masses from the kinematics and sizes and compare them to baryonic masses, with gas masses estimated from Balmer decrement corrected H$\alpha$ star formation rates (SFRs) and the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation. When assuming that galaxies with and without observed rotation have the same median $(V/\sigma_{v,0})_{R_E}$, we find good agreement between the dynamical and baryonic masses, with a scatter of $\sigma_{RMS}=0.338$ dex and a median offset of $\Delta\log_{10}M=0.04$ dex. This comparison implies a low dark matter fraction (8% within an effective radius) for a Chabrier initial mass function (IMF), and disfavors a Salpeter IMF. Moreover, the requirement that $M_{dyn}/M_{baryon}$ for galaxies without observed rotation should be independent of inclination yields a median value of $(V/\sigma_{v,0})_{R_E}= 2.1$. If instead we assume that galaxies without resolved rotation are ellipticals, the masses are also in reasonable agreement ($\Delta\log_{10}M=-0.06$ dex, $\sigma_{RMS}=0.364$ dex). The inclusion of gas masses is critical in this comparison; if gas masses are excluded there is an increasing trend of $M_{dyn}/M_{*}$ with higher specific SFR (SSFR). Furthermore, we find indications that $V/\sigma$ decreases with increasing H$\alpha$ SSFR for our full sample, which may reflect disk settling. The active galactic nuclei in our sample have a similar distribution in $M_{dyn}-M_{baryon}$ as the primary sample, which suggests the kinematics describe the host galaxies.
Merger Signatures in the Dynamics of Star-forming Gas  [PDF]
Chao-Ling Hung,Christopher C. Hayward,Howard A. Smith,Matthew L. N. Ashby,Lauranne Lanz,Juan R. Martínez-Galarza,D. B. Sanders,Andreas Zezas
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Spatially resolved kinematics have been used to determine the dynamical status of star-forming galaxies with ambiguous morphologies, and constrain the importance of galaxy interactions during the assembly of galaxies. However, measuring the importance of interactions or galaxy merger rates requires knowledge of the systematics in kinematic diagnostics and the visible time with merger indicators. We analyze the dynamics of star-forming gas in a set of binary merger hydrodynamic simulations with stellar mass ratios of 1:1 and 1:4. We find that the evolution of kinematic asymmetries traced by star-forming gas mirrors morphological asymmetries derived from mock optical images, in which both merger indicators show the largest deviation from isolated disks during strong interaction phases. Based on a series of simulations with various initial disk orientations, orbital parameters, gas fractions, and mass ratios, we find that the merger signatures are visible for ~0.2-0.4 Gyr with kinematic merger indicators but can be approximately twice as long for equal-mass mergers of massive gas-rich disk galaxies designed to be analogs of z~2-3 submillimeter galaxies. Merger signatures are most apparent after the second passage and before the black holes coalescence, but in some cases they persist up to several hundred Myr after coalescence. About 20-60% of the simulated galaxies are not identified as mergers during the strong interaction phase, implying that galaxies undergoing violent merging process do not necessarily exhibit highly asymmetric kinematics in their star-forming gas. The lack of identifiable merger signatures in this population can lead to an underestimation of merger abundances in star-forming galaxies, and including them in samples of star-forming disks may bias the measurements of disk properties such as intrinsic velocity dispersion.
A Kinematic Approach To Assessing Environmental Effects: Star-Forming Galaxies in a z~0.9 SpARCS cluster using Spitzer 24um Observations  [PDF]
A. G. Noble,T. M. A. Webb,A. Muzzin,G. Wilson,H. K. C. Yee,R. F. J. van der Burg
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/768/2/118
Abstract: We present an infrared study of a z=0.872 cluster, SpARCS J161314+564930, with the primary aim of distinguishing the dynamical histories of spectroscopically confirmed star-forming members to assess the role of cluster environment. We utilize deep MIPS imaging and a mass-limited sample of 85 spectroscopic members to identify 16 24um-bright sources within the cluster, and measure their 24um star formation rates (SFRs) down to ~6 Msolar/year. Based on their line-of-sight velocities and stellar ages, MIPS cluster members appear to be an infalling population that was recently accreted from the field with minimal environmental dependency on their star formation. However, we identify a double-sequenced distribution of star-forming galaxies amongst the members, with one branch exhibiting declining specific SFRs with mass. The members along this sub-main sequence contain spectral features suggestive of passive galaxies. Using caustic diagrams, we kinematically identify these galaxies as a virialized and/or backsplash population. Moreover, we find a mix of dynamical histories at all projected radii, indicating that standard definitions of environment (i.e., radius and density) are contaminated with recently accreted interlopers, which could contribute to a lack of environmental trends for star-forming galaxies. A cleaner narrative of their dynamical past begins to unfold when using a proxy for accretion histories through profiles of constant (r/r_200)x(Delta v/sigma_v); galaxies accreted at earlier times possess lower values of (r/r_200)x(Delta v/sigma_v) with minimal contamination from the distinct infalling population. Therefore, adopting a time-averaged definition for density (as traced by accretion histories) rather than an instantaneous density yields a depressed specific SFR within the dynamical cluster core.
The faintest star forming galaxies  [PDF]
Piero Ranalli
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1002/asna.200310042
Abstract: I briefly report on the X-ray detection of 10 radio sub-mJy sources in the 2 Ms Chandra observation of the Hubble Deep Field North region. These sources follow the same radio/X-ray luminosities relation which holds for nearby galaxies. Making use of this relation, X-ray number counts from star forming galaxies are predicted from the deep radio Log N-Log S's.
Star forming dwarf galaxies  [PDF]
Nils Bergvall
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-22018-0_20
Abstract: Star forming dwarf galaxies (SFDGs) have a high gas content and low metallicities, reminiscent of the basic entities in hierarchical galaxy formation scenarios. In the young universe they probably also played a major role in the cosmic reionization. Their abundant presence in the local volume and their youthful character make them ideal objects for detailed studies of the initial stellar mass function (IMF), fundamental star formation processes and its feedback to the interstellar medium. Occasionally we witness SFDGs involved in extreme starbursts, giving rise to strongly elevated production of super star clusters and global superwinds, mechanisms yet to be explored in more detail. SFDGs is the initial state of all dwarf galaxies and the relation to the environment provides us with a key to how different types of dwarf galaxies are emerging. In this review we will put the emphasis on the exotic starburst phase, as it seems less important for present day galaxy evolution but perhaps fundamental in the initial phase of galaxy formation.
Dust in Star-Forming Galaxies  [PDF]
Daniela Calzetti
Physics , 1998,
Abstract: I review the effects of dust obscuration in galaxies at both low and high redshifts, and briefly discuss a method to remove dust reddening from the emerging light of star-forming galaxies. I also analyze the evolution of the dust opacity in galaxies as a function of redshift, and discuss its effect on the observed UV-optical light. The quantitative corrections for dust obscuration given here allow one to recover the intrinsic value of the global star formation at different cosmological times.
The Pressure of the Star Forming ISM in Cosmological Simulations  [PDF]
Ferah Munshi,Charlotte Christensen,Thomas R. Quinn,Fabio Governato,James Wadsley,Sarah Loebman,Sijing Shen
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/781/1/L14
Abstract: We examine the pressure of the star-forming interstellar medium (ISM) of Milky-Way sized disk galaxies using fully cosmological SPH+N-body, high resolution simulations. These simulations include explicit treatment of metal-line cooling in addition to dust and self-shielding, $\mathrm{H_{2}}$ based star formation. The 4 simulated halos have masses ranging from a few times $10^{10}$ to nearly $10^{12}$ solar masses. Using a kinematic decomposition of these galaxies into present-day bulge and disk components, we find that the typical pressure of the star-forming ISM in the present-day bulge is higher than that in the present-day disk by an order of magnitude. We also find that pressure of the star-forming ISM at high redshift is on average, higher than ISM pressures at low redshift. This explains the why the bulge forms at higher pressures: the disk assembles at lower redshift, when the ISM is lower pressure and the bulge forms at high redshift, when the ISM is at higher pressure. If ISM pressure and IMF variation are tied together as suggested in studies like \cite{Conroy2012}, these results could indicate a time-dependent IMF in Milky-Way like systems, as well as a different IMF in the bulge and the disk.
Structures of Local Galaxies Compared to High Redshift Star-forming Galaxies  [PDF]
Sara M. Petty,Duilia F. de Mello,John S. Gallagher III,Jonathan P. Gardner,Jennifer M. Lotz,C. Matt Mountain,Linda J. Smith
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1088/0004-6256/138/2/362
Abstract: The rest-frame far-ultraviolet (FUV) morphologies of 8 nearby interacting and starburst galaxies (Arp 269, M 82, Mrk 8, NGC 520, NGC 1068, NGC 3079, NGC 3310, NGC 7673) are compared with 54 galaxies at z ~ 1.5 and 46 galaxies at z ~ 4 observed in the GOODS-ACS field. The nearby sample is artificially redshifted to z ~ 1.5 and 4. We compare the simulated galaxy morphologies to real z ~ 1.5 and 4 UV-bright galaxy morphologies. We calculate the Gini coefficient (G), the second-order moment of the brightest 20% of the galaxy's flux (M_20), and the Sersic index (n). We explore the use of nonparametric methods with 2D profile fitting and find the combination of M_20 with n an efficient method to classify galaxies as having merger, exponential disk, or bulge-like morphologies. When classified according to G and M_20, 20/30% of real/simulated galaxies at z ~ 1.5 and 37/12% at z ~ 4 have bulge-like morphologies. The rest have merger-like or intermediate distributions. Alternatively, when classified according to the Sersic index, 70% of the z ~ 1.5 and z ~ 4 real galaxies are exponential disks or bulge-like with n > 0.8, and ~30% of the real galaxies are classified as mergers. The artificially redshifted galaxies have n values with ~35% bulge or exponential at z ~ 1.5 and 4. Therefore, ~20-30% of Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) have structures similar to local starburst mergers, and may be driven by similar processes. We assume merger-like or clumpy star-forming galaxies in the GOODS field have morphological structure with values n < 0.8 and M_20 > -1.7. We conclude that Mrk 8, NGC 3079, and NGC 7673 have structures similar to those of merger-like and clumpy star-forming galaxies observed at z ~ 1.5 and 4.
Ammonia Thermometry of Star Forming Galaxies  [PDF]
Jeffrey G. Mangum,Jeremy Darling,Christian Henkel,Karl M. Menten,Meredith MacGregor,Brian E. Svoboda,Eva Schinnerer
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/779/1/33
Abstract: With a goal toward deriving the physical conditions in external galaxies, we present a study of the ammonia (NH$_3$) emission and absorption in a sample of star forming systems. Using the unique sensitivities to kinetic temperature afforded by the excitation characteristics of several inversion transitions of NH$_3$, we have continued our characterization of the dense gas in star forming galaxies by measuring the kinetic temperature in a sample of 23 galaxies and one galaxy offset position selected for their high infrared luminosity. We derive kinetic temperatures toward 13 galaxies, 9 of which possess multiple kinetic temperature and/or velocity components. Eight of these galaxies exhibit kinetic temperatures $>100$ K, which are in many cases at least a factor of two larger than kinetic temperatures derived previously. Furthermore, the derived kinetic temperatures in our galaxy sample, which are in many cases at least a factor of two larger than derived dust temperatures, point to a problem with the common assumption that dust and gas kinetic temperatures are equivalent. As previously suggested, the use of dust emission at wavelengths greater than 160 $\mu$m to derive dust temperatures, or dust heating from older stellar populations, may be skewing derived dust temperatures in these galaxies to lower values. We confirm the detection of high-excitation OH $^2\Pi_{3/2}$ J=9/2 absorption toward Arp220 (Ott et. al. 2011). We also report the first detections of non-metastable NH$_3$ inversion transitions toward external galaxies in the (2,1) (NGC253, NGC660, IC342, and IC860), (3,1), (3,2), (4,3), (5,4) (all in NGC660) and (10,9) (Arp220) transitions.
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