Abstract:
A vortex in a Bose-Einstein condensate generates the optical analog of the Aharonov-Bohm effect when illuminated with slow light. In contrast to the original Aharonov-Bohm effect the vortex will exchange forces with the light that lead to a measurable motion of the vortex.

Abstract:
We have realized an acoustic analog to the Dynamical Casimir effect. The density of a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate is modulated by changing the trap stiffness. We observe the creation of correlated excitations with equal and opposite momenta, and show that for a well defined modulation frequency, the frequency of the excitations is half that of the trap modulation frequency.

Abstract:
We study many-body tunneling of a small Bose-Einstein condensate in a periodically modulated, tilted double-well potential. Periodic modulation of the trapping potential leads to an analog of photon-assisted tunneling, with distinct signatures of the interparticle interaction visible in the amount of particles transferred from one well to the other. In particular, under experimentally accessible conditions there exist well-developed half-integer Shapiro-like resonances.

Abstract:
We consider a simple realization of an event horizon in the flow of a one-dimensional two-component Bose-Einstein condensate. Such a condensate has two types of quasiparticles; In the system we study, one corresponds to density fluctuations and the other to polarization fluctuations. We treat the case where a horizon occurs only for one type of quasiparticles (the polarization ones). We study the one- and two-body signal associated to the analog of spontaneous Hawking radiation and demonstrate by explicit computation that it consists only in the emission of polarization waves. We discuss the experimental consequences of the present results in the domain of atomic Bose-Einstein condensates and also for the physics of exciton-polaritons in semiconductor microcavities.

Abstract:
We investigate a simple model for a galactic halo under the assumption that it is dominated by a dark matter component in the form of a Bose-Einstein condensate involving an ultra-light scalar particle. In particular we discuss the possibility if the dark matter is in superfluid state then a rotating galactic halo might contain quantised vortices which would be low-energy analogues of cosmic strings. Using known solutions for the density profiles of such vortices we compute the self-gravitational interactions in such halos and place bounds on the parameters describing such models, such as the mass of the particles involved.

Abstract:
It is shown that, in dilute-gas Bose-Einstein condensates, there exist both dynamically stable and unstable configurations which, in the hydrodynamic limit, exhibit a behavior resembling that of gravitational black holes. The dynamical instabilities involve creation of quasiparticle pairs in positive and negative energy states, as in the well-known suggested mechanism for black hole evaporation. We propose a scheme to generate a stable sonic black hole in a ring trap.

Abstract:
We study the mechanisms of the gravitational collapse of the Bose-Einstein condensate dark matter halos, described by the zero temperature time-dependent nonlinear Schr\"odinger equation (the Gross-Pitaevskii equation), with repulsive inter-particle interactions. By using a variational approach, and by choosing an appropriate trial wave function, we reformulate the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with spherical symmetry as Newton's equation of motion for a particle in an effective potential, which is determined by the zero point kinetic energy, the gravitational energy, and the particles interaction energy, respectively. The velocity of the condensate is proportional to the radial distance, with a time dependent proportionality function. The equation of motion of the collapsing dark matter condensate is studied by using both analytical and numerical methods. The collapse of the condensate ends with the formation of a stable configuration, corresponding to the minimum of the effective potential. The radius and the mass of the resulting dark matter object are obtained, as well as the collapse time of the condensate. The numerical values of these global astrophysical quantities, characterizing condensed dark matter systems, strongly depend on the two parameters describing the condensate, the mass of the dark matter particle, and of the scattering length, respectively. The stability of the condensate under small perturbations is also studied, and the oscillations frequency of the halo is obtained. Hence these results show that the gravitational collapse of the condensed dark matter halos can lead to the formation of stable astrophysical systems with both galactic and stellar sizes.

Abstract:
Ground state properties of trapped Bose condensate with repulsive interaction in non-homogeneous gravitational field are studied. Spatial structure of Bose condensate and its momentum distributions in 3-D anisotropic trap are considered by the solution of the modified non-linear Schrodinger equation. The results are compared with the corresponding properties of condensate in a harmonic trap without gravitational field.

Abstract:
The possibility that dark matter, whose existence is inferred from the study of the galactic rotation curves, and from the mass deficit in galaxy clusters, can be in a form of a Bose-Einstein Condensate, has been extensively investigated lately. In the present work, we consider a detailed analysis of the astrophysical properties of the Bose-Einstein Condensate dark matter halos that could provide clear observational signatures that help discriminate between different dark matter models. In the Bose-Einstein condensation model dark matter can be described as a non-relativistic, gravitationally confined Newtonian gas, whose density and pressure are related by a polytropic equation of state with index $n=1$. The mass and gravitational properties of the condensate halos are obtained in a systematic form, including the mean logarithmic slopes of the density and of the tangential velocity. The lensing properties of the condensate dark matter are investigated in detail. In particular, a general analytical formula for the surface density, an important quantity that defines the lensing properties of a dark matter halos, is obtained in the form of series expansions. This enables arbitrary-precision calculations of the surface mass density, deflection angle, deflection potential, and of the magnification factor, thus giving the possibility of the comparison of the predicted lensing properties of the condensate dark matter halos with observations. The stability properties of the condensate halos are also investigated by using the scalar and the tensor virial theorems, respectively, and the virial perturbation equation for condensate dark matter halos is derived.

Abstract:
We report the reflection and focussing of a Bose-Einstein condensate by a new pulsed magnetic mirror. The mirror is adaptive, inelastic, and of extremely high optical quality. The deviations from specularity are less than 0.5 mrad rms, making this the best atomic mirror demonstrated to date. We have also used the mirror to realize the analog of a beam-expander, producing an ultra-cold collimated fountain of matter waves