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The M31 population of supersoft sources  [PDF]
Peter Kahabka
Physics , 1999,
Abstract: The 1991 ROSAT PSPC M31 X-ray point source catalog has been screened in order to set up a sample of candidate supersoft sources in this galaxy, additional to the 16 supersoft sources of Supper et al. (1997). 26 candidates have been found. Absorbing hydrogen column densities, effective temperatures and white dwarf masses (assuming the sources are on the stability line of surface nuclear burning) are derived. An observed white dwarf mass distribution is derived which indicates that the masses are constrained to values above 0.90 solar masses. The entire population of supersoft sources in M31 is estimated taking a theoretical white dwarf mass distribution into account, assuming that the observationally derived sample is restricted to white dwarf masses above 0.90 solar, and taking into account that the gas and the source population have a different scale height. A total number of at least 200-500 and at most 6,000-15,000 sources is deduced depending on the used galaxy N_H model, making use of the population synthesis calculation of Yungelson (1996). The spatial distribution favors a disk (or spiral-arm) dominated young stellar population with a ratio of 1/(4-7) of bulge/disk systems. Assuming that all supersoft sources with masses in excess of 0.5 solar masses are progenitors of supernovae of type Ia, a SN Ia rate of (0.8-7) 10^-3 yr^-1 is derived for M31 based on these progenitors. Supersoft sources might account for 20-100% of the total SN Ia rate in a galaxy like M31.
Optical identification of supersoft X-ray sources in M31  [PDF]
Marina orio,Roberto Casalegno,Chris Conselice,Jochen Greiner,Petko L. Nedialkov,Nikolay A. Tikhonov
Physics , 2001,
Abstract: We report on initial progress in a program of optical identification of supersoft X-ray sources in M31, pursued mainly with the WIYN telescope. We propose the identification of one supersoft X-ray source with a variable star, which we believe to have been a classical or recurrent nova in outburst in September 1990. The nova remnant must have been still a supersoft X-ray sources 5 years after this observation, when it was observed with ROSAT.
Supersoft X-Ray Sources in M31  [PDF]
J. Greiner,R. Supper,E. A. Magnier
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1007/BFb0102248
Abstract: The nearby Andromeda galaxy (M31) has been observed with the ROSAT PSPC in a mosaic of 6 pointings with 25 ksec each. In the paper describing the results on the total sample of detected sources, Supper et al. (1996) also report the positions for 15 supersoft X-ray sources and the blackbody fit results for the brightest of these sources. We report here in more detail on the X-ray spectral characteristics of all these 15 supersoft X-ray sources. Optical multi-colour photometric data obtained in 1990 at the Michigan- Dartmouth-MIT Observatory at Kitt Peak were used originally in the selection process of the supersoft sources, and are the basis for the finding charts given here for most selected X-ray sources.
Supersoft X-ray Sources in M31: I. A Chandra Survey and an Extension to Quasisoft Sources  [PDF]
R. Di Stefano,A. K. H. Kong,J. Greiner,F. A. Primini,M. R. Garcia,P. Barmby,P. Massey,P. W. Hodge,B. F. Williams,S. S. Murrary,S. Curry,T. A. Russo
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1086/421696
Abstract: We report on very soft X-ray sources (VSSs) in M31. In a survey which was most sensitive to soft sources in four 8'x8' regions covered by Chandra's ACIS-S S3 CCD, we find 33 VSSs that appear to belong to M31. Fifteen VSSs have spectral characteristics mirroring the supersoft X-ray sources studied in the Magellanic Cloud and Milky Way ($k T_{eff} \leq 100$ eV); we therefore call these ``classical'' supersoft sources, or simply supersoft sources (SSSs). Eighteen VSSs may either have small (< 10%) hard components, or slightly higher effective temperatures (but still < 350 eV). We refer to these VSSs as quasisoft sources (QSSs). While hot white dwarf models may apply to SSSs, the effective temperatures of QSSs are too high, unless, e.g., the radiation emanates from only a small portion of surface. Two of the SSSs were first detected and identified as such through ROSAT observations. One SSS and one QSS may be identified with symbiotics, and 2 SSSs with supernova remnants. Both SSSs and QSSs in the disk are found near star-forming regions, possibly indicating that they are young. VSSs in the outer disk and halo are likely to be old systems; in these regions, there are more QSSs than SSSs, which is opposite to what is found in fields closer to the galaxy center. The largest density of bright VSSs is in the bulge; some of the bulge sources are close enough to the nucleus to be remnants of the tidal disruption of a giant by the massive central black hole. By using Chandra data in combination with ROSAT and XMM observations, we find most VSSs to be highly variable, fading from or brightening toward detectability on time scales of months. There is evidence for VSSs with low luminosities ($\sim 10^{36}$ erg s$^{-1}$).
Multiwavelength modelling the SED of supersoft X-ray sources. I. The method and examples  [PDF]
Augustin Skopal
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1016/j.newast.2013.10.009
Abstract: Radiation of supersoft X-ray sources (SSS) dominates both the supersof X-ray and the far-UV domain. A fraction of their radiation can be reprocessed into the thermal nebular emission, seen in the spectrum from the near-UV to longer wavelengths. In the case of symbiotic X-ray binaries (SyXBs) a strong contribution from their cool giants is indicated in the optical/near-IR. In this paper I introduce a method of multiwavelength modelling the spectral energy distribution (SED) of SSSs from the supersoft X-rays to the near-IR with the aim to determine the physical parameters of their composite spectra. The method is demonstrated on two extragalactic SSSs, the SyXB RX J0059.1-7505 (LIN 358) in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), RX J0439.8-6809 in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and two Galactic SSSs, the classical nova RX J2030.5+5237 (V1974 Cyg) during its supersoft phase and the classical symbiotic star RX J1601.6+6648 (AG Dra) during its quiescent phase. The multiwavelength approach overcomes the problem of the mutual dependence between the temperature, luminosity and amount of absorption, which appears when only the X-ray data are fitted.Thus, the method provides an unambiguous solution. It was found that selection of the model (a blackbody or an atmospheric model) is not of crucial importance in fitting the global X-ray/IR SED. The multiwavelength modelling of the SED of SSSs is essential in determining their physical parameters.
Multiwavelength modelling the SED of supersoft X-ray sources. II. RS Ophiuchi: From the explosion to the SSS phase  [PDF]
Augustin Skopal
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1016/j.newast.2013.12.005
Abstract: RS Oph is a recurrent symbiotic nova that undergoes nova-like outbursts on a time scale of 20 years. Its two last eruptions (1985 and 2006) were subject of intensive multiwavelengths observational campaign from the X-rays to the radio. This contribution aims to determine physical parameters and the ionization structure of the nova from its explosion to the first emergence of the supersoft X-rays (day 26) by using the method of multiwavelength modelling the SED. From the very beginning of the eruption, the model SED revealed the presence of both a strong stellar and nebular component of radiation in the spectrum. During the first 4 days, the nova evinced a biconical ionization structure. The $\sim 8200$ K warm and 160 - 200 R$_{\odot}$ extended pseudo-photosphere encompassed the white dwarf (WD) around its equator to the latitude $>40^{\circ}$. The remaining space around the WD's poles was ionized, producing a strong nebular continuum with the emission measure $EM \sim 2.3 \times 10^{62}$ cm$^{-3}$ via the fast wind from the WD. The luminosity of the burning WD was highly super-Eddington for the whole investigated period. The wind mass loss at rates of $10^{-4} - 10^{-5}$ M$_{\odot}$yr$^{-1}$ and the presence of jets suggest an accretion throughout a disk at a high rate, which can help to sustain the super-Eddington luminosity of the accretor for a long time.
Multiwavelength modelling the SED of supersoft X-ray sources III. RS Ophiuchi: The supersoft X-ray phase and beyond  [PDF]
A. Skopal
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1016/j.newast.2014.05.008
Abstract: I modelled the 14 \AA - 37 $\mu$m SED of the recurrent symbiotic nova RS Oph during its supersoft source (SSS) phase and the following quiescent phase. During the SSS phase, the model SEDs revealed the presence of a strong stellar and nebular component of radiation in the spectrum. The former was emitted by the burning WD at highly super-Eddington rate, while the latter represented a fraction of its radiation reprocessed by the thermal nebula. During the transition phase, both the components were decreasing and during quiescence the SED satisfied radiation produced by a large, optically thick disk (R(disk) > 10 R(Sun)). The mass of the emitting material was (1.6 +/- 0.5) x 1E-4(d/1.6 kpc)**(5/2) M(Sun). The helium ash, deposited on the WD surface during the whole burning period, was around of 8 x 1E-6(d/1.6kpc)**2 M(Sun), which yields an average growing rate of the WD mass, dM(WD)/dt ~ 4 x 1E-7(d/1.6 kpc)**2 M(Sun)/yr. The mass accreted by the WD between outbursts, m(acc) ~ 1.26 x 1E-5 M(Sun), constrains the average accretion rate, dM(acc)/dt ~ 6.3 x 1E-7 M(Sun)/yr. If the wind from the giant is not sufficient to feed the WD at the required rate, the accretion can be realized from the disk-like reservoir of material around the WD. In this case the time between outbursts will extend, with the next explosion beyond 2027. In the opposite case, the wind from the giant has to be focused to the orbital plane to sustain the high accretion rate at a few times 1E-7 M(Sun)/yr. Then the next explosion can occur even prior to 2027.
The Short Period Supersoft Source in M31  [PDF]
A. R. King,J. P. Osborne,K. Schenker
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.2002.05173.x
Abstract: We show that the recently discovered short period supersoft source in M31 is probably a progenitor of a magnetic CV. The white dwarf spins asynchronously because of the current high accretion rate. However its fieldstrength is typical of an AM Herculis system, which is what it will ultimately become. We discuss the relevance of this system to CV evolution, and its relation to some particular CVs with special characteristics.
Multiwavelength observations of TANAMI sources  [PDF]
Felicia Krau?,Cornelia Müller,Matthias Kadler,J?rn Wilms,Moritz B?ck,Roopesh Ojha,Eduardo Ros
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: The TANAMI VLBI program is monitoring a sample of 84 Active Galactic Nuclei of the Southern Sky at 8.4 and 22 GHz. The combination of VLBI and multiwavelength data allows us to study changes in the spectral energy distributions, as well as changes in the structure of the inner jets and to search correlations between both. We present initial results of the multiwavelength analysis of a sub-sample of the TANAMI sources, combining our radio data with simultaneous X-ray and optical/UV observations from Swift and XMM-Newton, and gamma-ray data from Fermi, focusing on the broadband spectral energy distributions as well as variability in different wavebands.
Analysis of a State Changing Supersoft X-ray Source in M31  [PDF]
Brandon Patel,Rosanne Di Stefano,Thomas Nelson,Francis A. Primini,Jifeng Liu,Sarah Scoles
Physics , 2010,
Abstract: We report on observations of a luminous supersoft X-ray source (SSS) in M31, r1-25, that has exhibited spectral changes to harder X-ray states. We document these spectral changes. In addition, we show that they have important implications for modeling the source. Quasisoft states in a source that has been observed as an SSS represent a newly- discovered phenomenon. We show how such state changers could prove to be examples of unusual black hole or neutron star accretors. Future observations of this and other state changers can provide the information needed to determine the nature(s) of these intriguing new sources.
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