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In Situ Models for Planet Assembly around Cool stars  [PDF]
Brad M. S. Hansen
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1017/S1473550414000159
Abstract: We present a model for the in situ assembly of planetary systems around a 0.5~$M_{\odot}$ star, and compare the resulting statistics to the observed sample of cool Kepler planet candidates from Dressing & Charbonneau (2013). We are able to reproduce the distribution of planetary periods and period ratios, although we once again find an underabundance of single transit systems relative to the observations. We also demonstrate that almost every planetary system assembled in this fashion contains at least one planet in the habitable zone, and that water delivery to these planets can potentially produce a water content comparable to that of Earth. Our results broadly support the notion that habitable planets are plentiful around M~dwarfs in the solar neighbourhood.
Fundamental Properties of Kepler Planet-Candidate Host Stars using Asteroseismology  [PDF]
Daniel Huber,William J. Chaplin,J?rgen Christensen-Dalsgaard,Ronald L. Gilliland,Hans Kjeldsen,Lars A. Buchhave,Debra A. Fischer,Jack J. Lissauer,Jason F. Rowe,Roberto Sanchis-Ojeda,Sarbani Basu,Rasmus Handberg,Saskia Hekker,Andrew W. Howard,Howard Isaacson,Christoffer Karoff,David W. Latham,Mikkel N. Lund,Mia Lundkvist,Geoffrey W. Marcy,Andrea Miglio,Victor Silva Aguirre,Dennis Stello,Torben Arentoft,Thomas Barclay,Timothy R. Bedding,Christopher J. Burke,Jessie L. Christiansen,Yvonne P. Elsworth,Michael R. Haas,Steven D. Kawaler,Travis S. Metcalfe,Fergal Mullally,Susan E. Thompson
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/767/2/127
Abstract: We have used asteroseismology to determine fundamental properties for 66 Kepler planet-candidate host stars, with typical uncertainties of 3% and 7% in radius and mass, respectively. The results include new asteroseismic solutions for four host stars with confirmed planets (Kepler-4, Kepler-14, Kepler-23 and Kepler-25) and increase the total number of Kepler host stars with asteroseismic solutions to 77. A comparison with stellar properties in the planet-candidate catalog by Batalha et al. shows that radii for subgiants and giants obtained from spectroscopic follow-up are systematically too low by up to a factor of 1.5, while the properties for unevolved stars are in good agreement. We furthermore apply asteroseismology to confirm that a large majority of cool main-sequence hosts are indeed dwarfs and not misclassified giants. Using the revised stellar properties, we recalculate the radii for 107 planet candidates in our sample, and comment on candidates for which the radii change from a previously giant-planet/brown-dwarf/stellar regime to a sub-Jupiter size, or vice versa. A comparison of stellar densities from asteroseismology with densities derived from transit models in Batalha et al. assuming circular orbits shows significant disagreement for more than half of the sample due to systematics in the modeled impact parameters, or due to planet candidates which may be in eccentric orbits. Finally, we investigate tentative correlations between host-star masses and planet candidate radii, orbital periods, and multiplicity, but caution that these results may be influenced by the small sample size and detection biases.
Architecture and Dynamics of Kepler's Candidate Multiple Transiting Planet Systems  [PDF]
Jack J. Lissauer,Darin Ragozzine,Daniel C. Fabrycky,Jason H. Steffen,Eric B. Ford,Jon M. Jenkins,Avi Shporer,Matthew J. Holman,Jason F. Rowe,Elisa V. Quintana,Natalie M. Batalha,William J. Borucki,Stephen T. Bryson,Douglas A. Caldwell,Joshua A. Carter,David Ciardi,Edward W. Dunham,Jonathan J. Fortney,Thomas N. Gautier III,Steve Howell,David G. Koch,David W. Latham,Geoffrey W. Marcy,Robert C. Morehead,Dimitar Sasselov
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/197/1/8
Abstract: About one-third of the ~1200 transiting planet candidates detected in the first four months of \ik data are members of multiple candidate systems. There are 115 target stars with two candidate transiting planets, 45 with three, 8 with four, and one each with five and six. We characterize the dynamical properties of these candidate multi-planet systems. The distribution of observed period ratios shows that the vast majority of candidate pairs are neither in nor near low-order mean motion resonances. Nonetheless, there are small but statistically significant excesses of candidate pairs both in resonance and spaced slightly too far apart to be in resonance, particularly near the 2:1 resonance. We find that virtually all candidate systems are stable, as tested by numerical integrations that assume a nominal mass-radius relationship. Several considerations strongly suggest that the vast majority of these multi-candidate systems are true planetary systems. Using the observed multiplicity frequencies, we find that a single population of planetary systems that matches the higher multiplicities underpredicts the number of singly-transiting systems. We provide constraints on the true multiplicity and mutual inclination distribution of the multi-candidate systems, revealing a population of systems with multiple super-Earth-size and Neptune-size planets with low to moderate mutual inclinations.
Revision of Earth-sized Kepler Planet Candidate Properties with High Resolution Imaging by Hubble Space Telescope  [PDF]
Kimberly M. S. Cartier,Ronald L. Gilliland,Jason T. Wright,David R. Ciardi
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/804/2/97
Abstract: We present the results of our Hubble Space Telescope program and describe how our analysis methods were used to re-evaluate the habitability of some of the most interesting Kepler planet candidates. Our program observed 22 Kepler Object of Interest (KOI) host stars, several of which were found to be multiple star systems unresolved by Kepler. We use our high-resolution imaging to spatially resolve the stellar multiplicity of Kepler-296, KOI-2626, and KOI-3049, and develop a conversion to the Kepler photometry (Kp) from the F555W and F775W filters on WFC3/UVIS. The binary system Kepler-296 (5 planets) has a projected separation of 0.217" (80AU); KOI-2626 (1 planet candidate) is a triple star system with a projected separation of 0.201" (70AU) between the primary and secondary components and 0.161" (55AU) between the primary and tertiary; and the binary system KOI-3049 (1 planet candidate) has a projected separation of 0.464" (225AU). We use our measured photometry to fit the separated stellar components to the latest Victoria-Regina Stellar Models with synthetic photometry to conclude that the systems are coeval. The components of the three systems range from mid-K dwarf to mid-M dwarf spectral types. We solved for the planetary properties of each system analytically and via an MCMC algorithm using our independent stellar parameters. The planets range from ~1.6R_Earth to ~4.2R_Earth, mostly Super Earths and mini-Neptunes. As a result of the stellar multiplicity, some planets previously in the Habitable Zone are, in fact, not, and other planets may be habitable depending on their assumed stellar host.
Detection of transit timing variations in excess of one hour in the Kepler multi-planet candidate system KOI 806 with the GTC  [PDF]
Brandon Tingley,Enric Palle,Hannu Parviainen,Hans-J?rg Deeg,Maria Rosa Zapatero Osorio,Antonio Cabrera-Lavers,Juan Antonio Belmonte,Pilar Monta?és Rodriguez,Felipe Murgas,Ignasi Ribas
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201118264
Abstract: We report the detection of transit timing variations (TTVs) well in excess of one hour in the Kepler multi-planet candidate system KOI 806. This system exhibits transits consistent with three separate planets -- a Super-Earth, a Jupiter, and a Saturn -- lying very nearly in a 1:2:5 resonance, respectively. We used the Kepler public data archive and observations with the Gran Telescopio de Canarias to compile the necessary photometry. For the largest candidate planet (KOI 806.02) in this system, we detected a large transit timing variation of -103.5$\pm$6.9 minutes against previously published ephemeris. We did not obtain a strong detection of a transit color signature consistent with a planet-sized object; however, we did not detect a color difference in transit depth, either. The large TTV is consistent with theoretical predictions that exoplanets in resonance can produce large transit timing variations, particularly if the orbits are eccentric. The presence of large TTVs among the bodies in this systems indicates that KOI806 is very likely to be a planetary system. This is supported by the lack of a strong color dependence in the transit depth, which would suggest a blended eclipsing binary.
100-year DASCH Light Curves of Kepler Planet-Candidate Host Stars  [PDF]
Sumin Tang,Dimitar Sasselov,Jonathan Grindlay,Edward Los,Mathieu Servillat
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1086/671759
Abstract: We present 100 year light curves of Kepler planet-candidate host stars from the Digital Access to a Sky Century at Harvard (DASCH) project. 261 out of 997 host stars have at least 10 good measurements on DASCH scans of the Harvard plates. 109 of them have at least 100 good measurements, including 70% (73 out of 104) of all host stars with g<=13 mag, and 44% (100 out of 228) of all host stars with g<=14 mag. Our typical photometric uncertainty is ~0.1-0.15 mag. No variation is found at 3-sigma level for these host stars, including 21 confirmed or candidate hot Jupiter systems which might be expected to show enhanced flares from magnetic interactions between dwarf primaries and their close and relatively massive planet companions.
Characterizing the Cool Kepler Objects of Interest. New Effective Temperatures, Metallicities, Masses and Radii of Low-Mass Kepler Planet-Candidate Host Stars  [PDF]
Philip S. Muirhead,Katherine Hamren,Everett Schlawin,Bárbara Rojas-Ayala,Kevin R. Covey,James P. Lloyd
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/750/2/L37
Abstract: We report stellar parameters for late-K and M-type planet-candidate host stars announced by the Kepler Mission. We obtained medium-resolution, K-band spectra of 84 cool (Teff < 4400 K) Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs) from Borucki et al. We identified one object as a giant (KOI 977); for the remaining dwarfs, we measured effective temperatures (Teff) and metallicities ([M/H]) using the K-band spectral indices of Rojas-Ayala et al. We determine the masses and radii of the cool KOIs by interpolation onto the Dartmouth evolutionary isochrones. The resultant stellar radii are significantly less than the values reported in the Kepler Input Catalogue and, by construction, correlate better with Teff. Applying the published KOI transit parameters to our stellar radius measurements, we report new physical radii for the planet candidates. Recalculating the equilibrium temperatures of the planet-candidates assuming Earth's albedo and re-radiation fraction, we find that 3 of the planet-candidates are terrestrial-sized with orbital semi-major axes that lie within the habitable zones of their host stars (KOI 463.01, KOI 812.03 and KOI 854.01). The stellar parameters presented in this letter serve as a resource for prioritization of future follow-up efforts to validate and characterize the cool KOI planet candidates.
Limits on surface gravities of Kepler planet-candidate host stars from non-detection of solar-like oscillations  [PDF]
T. L. Campante,W. J. Chaplin,M. N. Lund,D. Huber,S. Hekker,R. A. García,E. Corsaro,R. Handberg,A. Miglio,T. Arentoft,S. Basu,T. R. Bedding,J. Christensen-Dalsgaard,G. R. Davies,Y. P. Elsworth,R. L. Gilliland,C. Karoff,S. D. Kawaler,H. Kjeldsen,M. Lundkvist,T. S. Metcalfe,V. Silva Aguirre,D. Stello
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/783/2/123
Abstract: We present a novel method for estimating lower-limit surface gravities log g of Kepler targets whose data do not allow the detection of solar-like oscillations. The method is tested using an ensemble of solar-type stars observed in the context of the Kepler Asteroseismic Science Consortium. We then proceed to estimate lower-limit log g for a cohort of Kepler solar-type planet-candidate host stars with no detected oscillations. Limits on fundamental stellar properties, as provided by this work, are likely to be useful in the characterization of the corresponding candidate planetary systems. Furthermore, an important byproduct of the current work is the confirmation that amplitudes of solar-like oscillations are suppressed in stars with increased levels of surface magnetic activity.
Circumbinary Planet Formation in the Kepler-16 System. II. A Toy Model for In-situ Planet Formation within a Debris Belt  [PDF]
Stefano Meschiari
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/790/1/41
Abstract: Recent simulations have shown that the formation of planets in circumbinary configurations (such as those recently discovered by Kepler) is dramatically hindered at the planetesimal accretion stage. The combined action of the binary and the protoplanetary disk acts to raise impact velocities between km-sized planetesimals beyond their destruction threshold, halting planet formation within at least 10 AU from the binary. It has been proposed that a primordial population of "large" planetesimals (100 km or more in size), as produced by turbulent concentration mechanisms, would be able to bypass this bottleneck; however, it is not clear whether these processes are viable in the highly perturbed circumbinary environments. We perform two-dimensional hydrodynamical and N-body simulations to show that km-sized planetesimals and collisional debris can drift and be trapped in a belt close to the central binary. Within this belt, planetesimals could initially grow by accreting debris, ultimately becoming "indestructible" seeds that can accrete other planetesimals in-situ despite the large impact speeds. We find that large, indestructible planetesimals can be formed close to the central binary within $10^5$ years, therefore showing that even a primordial population of "small" planetesimals can feasibly form a planet.
Measurements of Stellar Inclinations for Kepler Planet Candidates II: Candidate Spin-Orbit Misalignments in Single and Multiple-Transiting Systems  [PDF]
Teruyuki Hirano,Roberto Sanchis-Ojeda,Yoichi Takeda,Joshua N. Winn,Norio Narita,Yasuhiro H. Takahashi
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/783/1/9
Abstract: We present a test for spin-orbit alignment for the host stars of 25 candidate planetary systems detected by the {\it Kepler} spacecraft. The inclination angle of each star's rotation axis was estimated from its rotation period, rotational line broadening, and radius. The rotation periods were determined using the {\it Kepler} photometric time series. The rotational line broadening was determined from high-resolution optical spectra with Subaru/HDS. Those same spectra were used to determine the star's photospheric parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity, metallicity) which were then interpreted with stellar-evolutionary models to determine stellar radii. We combine the new sample with the 7 stars from our previous work on this subject, finding that the stars show a statistical tendency to have inclinations near 90$^\circ$, in alignment with the planetary orbits. Possible spin-orbit misalignments are seen in several systems, including three multiple-planet systems (KOI-304, 988, 2261). Ideally these systems should be scrutinized with complementary techniques---such as the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, starspot-crossing anomalies or asteroseismology---but the measurements will be difficult owing to the relatively faint apparent magnitudes and small transit signals in these systems.
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