Abstract:
We investigate $p$-orbital Bose-Einstein condensates in both the square and checkerboard lattice by numerically solving the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. The periodic potential for the latter lattice is taken exactly from the recent experiment [Nature Phys. 7, 147 (2011)]. It is confirmed that the staggered orbital-current state is the lowest-energy state in the $p$ band. Our numerical calculation further reveals that for both lattices the staggered $p$-orbital state suffers Landau instability but the situation is remarkably different for dynamical instability. A dynamically stable parameter region is found for the checkerboard lattice, but not for the square.

Abstract:
The evolution of Bose-Einstein condensates is usually described by the famous time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation, which assumes all bosons to reside in a single time-dependent orbital. In the present work we address the evolution of fragmented condensates, for which two (or more) orbitals are occupied, and derive a corresponding time-dependent multi-orbital mean-field theory. We call our theory TDMF($n$), where $n$ stands for the number of evolving fragments. Working equations for a general two-body interaction between the bosons are explicitly presented along with an illustrative numerical example.

Abstract:
By using a renormalization group analysis, we study the effect of interparticle interactions on the critical temperature at which the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) transition occurs for Bose-Einstein condensates loaded at finite temperature in a 2D optical lattice. We find that the critical temperature decreases as the interaction energy decreases; when U/J=36/\pi one has a vanishing critical temperature, signaling the possibility of a quantum phase transition of BKT type.

Abstract:
Spin-orbit coupling (SOC) plays a crucial role in many branches of physics. In this context, the recent experimental realization of the coupling between spin and linear momentum of ultracold atoms opens a completely new avenue for exploring new spin-related superfluid physics. Here we propose that another important and fundamental SOC, the coupling between spin and orbital angular momentum (SOAM), can be implemented for ultracold atoms using higher-order Laguerre-Gaussian laser beams to induce Raman coupling between two hyperfine spin states of atoms. We study the ground-state phase diagrams of SOAM-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates on a ring trap and explore their applications in gravitational force detection. Our results may provide the basis for further investigation of intriguing superfluid physics induced by SOAM coupling, such as collective excitations.

Abstract:
We investigate the unconventional Bose-Einstein condensations (BEC) with the orbital degree of freedom in the 3D cubic optical lattice, which give rise to various exotic features absent in conventional scalar and spinor BECs. Orbital angular momentum moments are formed on lattice sites breaking time-reversal symmetry spontaneously. Furthermore, they exhibit orbital frustrations and develop a chiral ordering selected by the "order-from-disorder" mechanism.

Abstract:
We recently proposed a scheme for the creation of coherent superpositions of vortex states in Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) using orbital angular momentum (OAM) states of light [Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 173601 (2005)]. Here we discuss further technical details of the proposal, provide alternative, time-reversal-symmetric scheme for transfer of a superposition of OAM states of light to the BEC via a procedure analogous to the traditional STimulated Raman Adiabatic Passage (STIRAP) technique, and discuss an alternative trap configuration conducive for sustaining large charge vortices. Superpositions of OAM states of light, created using experimental techniques, can be transfered to an initially nonrotating BEC via a specially devised Raman coupling scheme. The techniques proposed here open up avenues to study coherent interaction of OAM states of light with matter. The study could also be employed for performing various quantum information processing tasks with OAM states of light--including a memory for a quantum state of the initial superposition.

Abstract:
Feschbach resonances in a non-s-wave channel of two-component bosonic mixtures can induce atomic Bose Einstein condensates with a non-zero orbital momentum in the optical lattice, if one component is in the Mott insulator state and the other is not. Such non-s-wave condensates break the symmetry of the lattice and, in some cases, time-reversal symmetry. They can be revealed in specific absorption imaging patterns.

Abstract:
The kinetics of nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein condensates are considered within the framework of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. A systematic derivation is given for weak small-scale perturbations of a steady confined condensate state. This approach combines a wavepacket WKB description with the weak turbulence theory. The WKB theory derived in this paper describes the effect of the condensate on the short-wave excitations which appears to be different from a simple renormalization of the confining potential suggested in previous literature.

Abstract:
We investigate the quantum dynamics of Raman-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates driven by laser beams that carry orbital angular momentum. By adiabatically eliminating the excited atomic state we obtain an effective two-state Hamiltonian for the coupled condensates, and quantization of the matter-wave fields results in collapse and revivals in the quantum dynamics. We show that the revival period depends on whether the initial nonrotating condensate displays broken U(1) symmetry or not, and that the difference may be detected by measuring the motion of quantized vortices that are nested in the density profile of the Raman-coupled condensates. We further study the steady-state population transfer using a linear sweep of the two-photon detuning, by which the atomic population is coherently transferred from an initial nonrotating state to the final vortex state.

Abstract:
We study the establishment of vortex entanglement in remote and weakly interacting Bose Einstein condensates. We consider a two-mode photonic resource entangled in its orbital angular momentum (OAM) degree of freedom and, by exploiting the process of light-to-BEC OAM transfer, demonstrate that such entanglement can be efficiently passed to the matter-like systems. Our proposal thus represents a building block for novel low-dissipation and long-memory communication channels based on OAM. We discuss issues of practical realizability, stressing the feasibility of our scheme and present an operative technique for the indirect inference of the set vortex entanglement.