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 Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1063/1.4936176 Abstract: Space-charge modulation of the current in a vacuum diode under photoemission leads to the formation of beamlets with time periodicity corresponding to THz frequencies. We investigate the effect of the emitter temperature and internal space-charge forces on the formation and persistence of the beamlets. We find that temperature effects are most important for beam degradation at low values of the applied electric field, whereas at higher fields intra-beamlet space-charge forces are dominant. The current modulation is most robust when there is only one beamlet present in the diode gap at a time, corresponding to a macroscopic version of the Coulomb blockade. It is shown that a vacuum microdiode can operate quite well as a tunable THz oscillator at room temperature with an applied electric field above 10 MV/m and a diode gap of the order of 100 nanometers.
 Physics , 2010, Abstract: A cavity-polariton, formed due to the strong coupling between exciton and cavity mode, is one of the most promising composite bosons for realizing macroscopic spontaneous coherence at high temperature. Up to date, most of polariton quantum degeneracy experiments were conducted in the complicated two-dimensional (2D) planar microcavities. The role of dimensionality in coherent quantum degeneracy of a composite bosonic system of exciton polaritons remains mysterious. Here we report the first experimental observation of a one-dimensional (1D) polariton condensate in a ZnO microwire at room temperature. The massive occupation of the polariton ground state above a distinct pump power threshold is clearly demonstrated by using the angular resolved spectroscopy under non-resonant excitation. The power threshold is one order of magnitude lower than that of Mott transition. Furthermore, a well-defined far field emission pattern from the polariton condensate mode is observed, manifesting the coherence build-up in the condensed polariton system.
 Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.7567/JJAP.53.09PD07 Abstract: Terahertz radiation by optical rectification has been observed at room temperature in a hydrogen-bonded organic molecular ferroelectric crystal, 2-phenyl malondialdehyde (PhMDA). The radiated electromagnetic wave consisted of a single-cycle terahertz pulse with a temporal width of $\sim$ 0.5 ps. The terahertz radiation amplitude divided by the sample thickness in PhMDA was nearly equivalent to that in a typical terahertz wave emitter ZnTe. This is attributable to a long coherence length in the range of 130 $\sim$ 800 $\mu$m for the terahertz radiation from PhMDA. We also discussed the possibility of PhMDA as a terahertz wave emitter in terms of the phase-matching condition.
 Majed Zyaei;Aly Rostami;Hamed Haji Khanmohamadi;Hassan Rasooli Saghai PIER B , 2011, DOI: 10.2528/PIERB10121502 Abstract: A novel kind of room temperature terahertz photodetector based on Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT) is presented. The main idea for room temperature and THz range operation is reduction of dark current which is done by converting of the incoming terahertz signal (long-wavelength Infrared signal) to short-wavelength field through EIT phenomena. For realization of this idea, we examine EIT phenomena in multi levels atomic system and quantum wells cascade structures. In the proposed structure the quantum interference between long wavelength and short-wavelength radiation modifies the absorption characteristic of short-wavelength probe field. By this means, the terahertz signal does not interact directly with ground state electrons, but affects on the absorption characteristics of the short-wavelength or visible probe optical field which directly interact with ground state electrons. Therefore, the important thermionic dark current in terahertz detection, can be strongly reduced. So, the proposed idea is appropriate for terahertz and room temperature applications.
 Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.91.195312 Abstract: In the field of spin-controlled semiconductor lasers, massive effort has been focused upon materials with long spin relaxation times (~ns). In contrast, we demonstrate room-temperature spin-polarized ultrafast pulsed lasing in InGaAs quantum wells (~10 ps) embedded within a GaAs microcavity. The microcavity studied here is similar to vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL) used in optical communication. Unlike a VCSEL, the present polariton laser has nonlinear output and energy shifts owing to the mixing of the free-carrier polarization and cavity light field. At room temperature, we observe features resembling those in exciton-polariton condensates at cryogenic temperatures, including the spontaneous build-up of spatial coherence, macroscopic occupation, and spin polarization. Our results should stimulate activities to exploit spin-orbit interaction and many-body effects for fundamental studies of quantum light-matter fluids and developments of spin-dependent optoelectronic devices.
 Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.101.136409 Abstract: We observe the build up of strong (~50%) spontaneous vector polarisation in emission from a GaN-based polariton laser excited by short optical pulses at room temperature. The Stokes vector of emitted light changes its orientation randomly from one excitation pulse to another, so that the time-integrated polarisation remains zero. This behaviour is completely different to any previous laser. We interpret this observation in terms of the spontaneous symmetry breaking in a Bose-Einstein condensate of exciton-polaritons.
 Physics , 2010, Abstract: Room temperature Terahertz stimulated emission and population inversion in optically pumped graphene is reported. We experimentally observe fast relaxation and relatively slow recombination dynamics of photogenerated electrons/holes in an exfoliated graphene on SiO2/Si substrate under pumping with a 1550-nm, 80-fs pulsed fiber laser beam and probing with the corresponding terahertz beam generated by optical rectification in a nonlinear electro optical sensor. The time resolved electric field intensity originating from the coherent terahertz photon emission is electro-optically sampled in an total-reflection geometry. The comparison of terahertz electric fields intensities measured on SiO2/Si substrate and that one from graphene clearly indicate that graphene sheet act like an amplifying medium. The Emission spectra agrees relatively well the pumping photon spectrum and its dependency on the pumping power shows a threshold like behavior, testifying the occurrence of the negative conductivity in the THz spectral range and the population inversion. The threshold pumping intensity > 5*10^6 W/cm^2 is in a good agreement with simulations.
 Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1063/1.4884120 Abstract: A new platform for fabricating polariton lasers operating at room temperature is introduced: nitride-based distributed Bragg reflectors epitaxially grown on patterned silicon substrates. The patterning allows for an enhanced strain relaxation thereby enabling to stack a large number of crack-free AlN/AlGaN pairs and achieve cavity quality factors of several thousands with a large spatial homogeneity. GaN and ZnO active regions are epitaxially grown thereon and the cavities are completed with top dielectric Bragg reflectors. The two structures display strong-coupling and polariton lasing at room temperature and constitute an intermediate step in the way towards integrated polariton devices.
 Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.74.023819 Abstract: We have shown that a coherently driven solid state medium can potentially produce strong controllable short pulses of THz radiation. The high efficiency of the technique is based on excitation of maximal THz coherence by applying resonant optical pulses to the medium. The excited coherence in the medium is connected to macroscopic polarization coupled to THz radiation. We have performed detailed simulations by solving the coupled density matrix and Maxwell equations. By using a simple $V$-type energy scheme for ruby, we have demonstrated that the energy of generated THz pulses ranges from hundreds of pico-Joules to nano-Joules at room temperature and micro-Joules at liquid helium temperature, with pulse durations from picoseconds to tens of nanoseconds. We have also suggested a coherent ruby source that lases on two optical wavelengths and simultaneously generates THz radiation. We discussed also possibilities of extension of the technique to different solid-state materials.
 Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2014.182 Abstract: Terahertz (THz) radiation has uses from security to medicine; however, sensitive room-temperature detection of THz is notoriously difficult. The hot-electron photothermoelectric effect in graphene is a promising detection mechanism: photoexcited carriers rapidly thermalize due to strong electron-electron interactions, but lose energy to the lattice more slowly. The electron temperature gradient drives electron diffusion, and asymmetry due to local gating or dissimilar contact metals produces a net current via the thermoelectric effect. Here we demonstrate a graphene thermoelectric THz photodetector with sensitivity exceeding 10 V/W (700 V/W) at room temperature and noise equivalent power less than 1100 pW/Hz^1/2 (20 pW/Hz^1/2), referenced to the incident (absorbed) power. This implies a performance which is competitive with the best room-temperature THz detectors for an optimally coupled device, while time-resolved measurements indicate that our graphene detector is eight to nine orders of magnitude faster than those. A simple model of the response, including contact asymmetries (resistance, work function and Fermi-energy pinning) reproduces the qualitative features of the data, and indicates that orders-of-magnitude sensitivity improvements are possible.
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