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The MaGICC volume: reproducing statistical properties of high redshift galaxies  [PDF]
Rahul Kannan,Greg S. Stinson,Andrea V. Macciò,Chris Brook,Simone M. Weinmann,James Wadsley,H. M. P. Couchman
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt2144
Abstract: We present a cosmological hydrodynamical simulation of a representative volume of the Universe, as part of the Making Galaxies in a Cosmological Context (MaGICC) project. MaGICC uses a thermal implementation for supernova and early stellar feedback. This work tests the feedback model at lower resolution across a range of galaxy masses, morphologies and merger histories. The simulated sample compares well with observations of high redshift galaxies ($z \ge 2$) including the stellar mass - halo mass ($M_\star - M_h$ ) relation, the Galaxy Stellar Mass Function (GSMF) at low masses ($M_\star \lt 5 \times 10^{10} M_\odot$ ) and the number density evolution of low mass galaxies. The poor match of $M_\star - M_h$ and the GSMF at high masses ($M_\star \ge 5 \times 10^{10} M_\odot$ ) indicates supernova feedback is insufficient to limit star formation in these haloes. At $z = 0$, our model produces too many stars in massive galaxies and slightly underpredicts the stellar mass around $L_\star$ mass galaxy. Altogether our results suggest that early stellar feedback, in conjunction with supernovae feedback, plays a major role in regulating the properties of low mass galaxies at high redshift.
Stellar and Gaseous Nuclear Disks Observed in Nearby (U)LIRGs  [PDF]
Anne M. Medling,Vivian U,Javiera Guedes,Claire E. Max,Lucio Mayer,Lee Armus,Bradford Holden,Rok Ro?kar,David Sanders
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/784/1/70
Abstract: We present near-infrared integral field spectroscopy of the central kiloparsec of 17 nearby luminous and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies undergoing major mergers. These observations were taken with OSIRIS assisted by the Keck I and II Adaptive Optics systems, providing spatial resolutions of a few tens of parsecs. The resulting kinematic maps reveal gas disks in at least 16 out of 19 nuclei and stellar disks in 11 out of 11 nuclei observed in these galaxy merger systems. In our late-stages mergers, these disks are young (stellar ages $<30$ Myr) and likely formed as gas disks which became unstable to star formation during the merger. On average, these disks have effective radii of a few hundred parsecs, masses between $10^{8}$ and $10^{10} M_{Sun}$, and $v/\sigma$ between 1 and 5. These disks are similar to those created in high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations of gas-rich galaxy mergers, and favor short coalescence times for binary black holes. The few galaxies in our sample in earlier stages of mergers have disks which are larger ($r_{eff}\sim200-1800$ pc) and likely are remnants of the galactic disks that have not yet been completely disrupted by the merger.
Dark MaGICC: the effect of Dark Energy on galaxy formation. Cosmology does matter  [PDF]
Camilla Penzo,Andrea V. Macciò,Luciano Casarini,Greg S. Stinson,James Wadsley
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu857
Abstract: We present the Dark MaGICC project, which aims to investigate the effect of Dark Energy (DE) modeling on galaxy formation via hydrodynamical cosmological simulations. Dark MaGICC includes four dynamical Dark Energy scenarios with time varying equations of state, one with a self-interacting Ratra-Peebles model. In each scenario we simulate three galaxies with high resolution using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). The baryonic physics model is the same used in the Making Galaxies in a Cosmological Context (MaGICC) project, and we varied only the background cosmology. We find that the Dark Energy parameterization has a surprisingly important impact on galaxy evolution and on structural properties of galaxies at z=0, in striking contrast with predictions from pure Nbody simulations. The different background evolutions can (depending on the behavior of the DE equation of state) either enhance or quench star formation with respect to a LCDM model, at a level similar to the variation of the stellar feedback parameterization, with strong effects on the final galaxy rotation curves. While overall stellar feedback is still the driving force in shaping galaxies, we show that the effect of the Dark Energy parameterization plays a larger role than previously thought, especially at lower redshifts. For this reason, the influence of Dark Energy parametrization on galaxy formation must be taken into account, especially in the era of precision cosmology.
MAGICC haloes: confronting simulations with observations of the circumgalactic medium at z=0  [PDF]
Greg Stinson,Chris Brook,J. Xavier Prochaska,Joe Hennawi,Andrew Pontzen,Sijing Shen,James Wadsley,Hugh Couchman,Tom Quinn,Andrea V. Macciò,Brad K. Gibson
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.21522.x
Abstract: We explore the circumgalactic medium (CGM) of two simulated star-forming galaxies with luminosities L ~ 0.1 and 1 L* generated using the smooth particle hydrodynamic code GASOLINE. These simulations are part of the Making Galaxies In a Cosmological Context (MAGICC) program in which the stellar feedback is tuned to match the stellar mass-halo mass relationship. For comparison, each galaxy was also simulated using a 'lower feedback' (LF) model which has strength comparable to other implementations in the literature. The 'MAGICC feedback' (MF) model has a higher incidence of massive stars and an approximately two times higher energy input per supernova. Apart from the low-mass halo using LF, each galaxy exhibits a metal-enriched CGM that extends to approximately the virial radius. A significant fraction of this gas has been heated in supernova explosions in the disc and subsequently ejected into the CGM where it is predicted to give rise to substantial O VI absorption. The simulations do not yet address the question of what happens to the O VI when the galaxies stop forming stars. Our models also predict a reservoir of cool H I clouds that show strong Ly\alpha absorption to several hundred kpc. Comparing these models to recent surveys with the Hubble Space Telescope, we find that only the MF models have sufficient O VI and H I gas in the CGM to reproduce the observed distributions. In separate analyses, these same MF models also show better agreement with other galaxy observables (e.g. rotation curves, surface brightness profiles and H I gas distribution). We infer that the CGM is the dominant reservoir of baryons for galaxy haloes.
The Main Sequence and the Fundamental Metallicity Relation in MaGICC Galaxies: Evolution and Scatter  [PDF]
A. Obreja,C. B. Brook,G. Stinson,R. Domínguez-Tenreiro,B. K. Gibson,L. Silva,G. L. Granato
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu891
Abstract: Using cosmological galaxy simulations from the MaGICC project, we study the evolution of the stellar masses, star formation rates and gas phase abundances of star forming galaxies. We derive the stellar masses and star formation rates using observational relations based on spectral energy distributions by applying the new radiative transfer code GRASIL-3D to our simulated galaxies. The simulations match well the evolution of the stellar mass-halo mass relation, have a star forming main sequence that maintains a constant slope out to redshift z $\sim$ 2, and populate projections of the stellar mass - star formation - metallicity plane, similar to observed star forming disc galaxies. We discuss small differences between these projections in observational data and in simulations, and the possible causes for the discrepancies. The light-weighted stellar masses are in good agreement with the simulation values, the differences between the two varying between 0.06 dex and 0.20 dex. We also find a good agreement between the star formation rate tracer and the true (time-averaged) simulation star formation rates. Regardless if we use mass- or light-weighted quantities, our simulations indicate that bursty star formation cycles can account for the scatter in the star forming main sequence.
MaGICC-WDM: the effects of warm dark matter in hydrodynamical simulations of disc galaxy formation  [PDF]
Jakob Herpich,Gregory S. Stinson,Andrea V. Macciò,Chris Brook,James Wadsley,Hugh M. P. Couchman,Tom Quinn
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt1883
Abstract: We study the effect of warm dark matter (WDM) on hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy formation as part of the Making Galaxies in a Cosmological Context (MaGICC) project. We simulate three different galaxies using three WDM candidates of 1, 2 and 5 keV and compare results with pure cold dark matter simulations. WDM slightly reduces star formation and produces less centrally concentrated stellar profiles. These effects are most evident for the 1 keV candidate but almost disappear for $m_{\mathrm{WDM}}>2$ keV. All simulations form similar stellar discs independent of WDM particle mass. In particular, the disc scale length does not change when WDM is considered. The reduced amount of star formation in the case of 1 keV particles is due to the effects of WDM on merging satellites which are on average less concentrated and less gas rich. The altered satellites cause a reduced starburst during mergers because they trigger weaker disc instabilities in the main galaxy. Nevertheless we show that disc galaxy evolution is much more sensitive to stellar feedback than it is to WDM candidate mass. Overall we find that WDM, especially when restricted to current observational constraints ($m_{\mathrm{WDM}}>2$ keV), has a minor impact on disc galaxy formation.
Variations in the Star Formation Efficiency of the Dense Molecular Gas across the Disks of Star-Forming Galaxies  [PDF]
Antonio Usero,Adam K. Leroy,Fabian Walter,Andreas Schruba,Santiago García-Burillo,Karin Sandstrom,Frank Bigiel,Elias Brinks,Carsten Kramer,Erik Rosolowsky,Karl-Friedrich Schuster,W. J. G. de Blok
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1088/0004-6256/150/4/115
Abstract: We present a new survey of HCN(1-0) emission, a tracer of dense molecular gas, focused on the little-explored regime of normal star-forming galaxy disks. Combining HCN, CO, and infrared (IR) emission, we investigate the role of dense gas in Star Formation (SF), finding systematic variations in both the apparent dense gas fraction and the apparent SF efficiency (SFE) of dense gas. The latter may be unexpected, given the popularity of gas density threshold models to explain SF scaling relations. We used the IRAM 30-m telescope to observe HCN(1-0) across 29 nearby disk galaxies whose CO(2-1) emission has previously been mapped by the HERACLES survey. Because our observations span a range of galactocentric radii, we are able to investigate the properties of the dense gas as a function of local conditions. We focus on how the IR/CO, HCN/CO, and IR/HCN ratios (observational cognates of the SFE, dense gas fraction, and dense gas SFE) depend on the stellar surface density and the molecular/atomic ratio. The HCN/CO ratio correlates tightly with these two parameters across a range of 2.1 dex and increases in the high surface density parts of galaxies. Simultaneously, the IR/HCN ratio decreases systematically with these same parameters and is ~6-8 times lower near galaxy centers than in the outer regions. For fixed line-mass conversion factors, these results are incompatible with a simple model in which SF depends only on the gas mass above some density threshold. Only a specific set of environment-dependent conversion factors can render our observations compatible with such a model. Whole cloud models, such as the theory of turbulence regulated SF, do a better job of matching our data. We explore one such model in which variations in the Mach number and in the mean density would respectively drive the trends within galaxy disks and the differences between disk and merging galaxies (abridged).
Inner Polar Rings and Disks: Observed Properties  [PDF]
A. V. Moiseev
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1134/S1990341312020034
Abstract: A list of galaxies with inner regions revealing polar (or strongly inclined to the main galactic plane) disks and rings is compiled from the literature data. The list contains 47 galaxies of all morphological types, from E to Irr. We consider the statistics of the parameters of polar structures known from observations. The radii of the majority of them do not exceed 1.5 kpc. The polar structures are equally common in barred and unbarred galaxies. At the same time, if a galaxy has a bar (or a triaxial bulge), this leads to the polar disk stabilization - its axis of rotation usually coincides with the major axis of the bar. More than two thirds of all considered galaxies reveal one or another sign of recent interaction or merging. This fact indicates a direct relation between the external environment and the presence of an inner polar structure.
The MaGICC Baryon Cycle: The Enrichment History of Simulated Disc Galaxies  [PDF]
C. B. Brook,G. Stinson,B. K. Gibson,S. Shen,A. V. Macciò,J. Wadsley,T. Quinn
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu1406
Abstract: Using cosmological galaxy formation simulations from the MaGICC project, spanning more than three magnitudes in stellar mass (~10^7-3x10^{10} Msun), we trace the baryonic cycle of infalling gas from the virial radius through to its participation in the star formation process. An emphasis is placed upon the temporal history of chemical enrichment during its passage through the corona and CGM. We derive the distributions of time between gas crossing the virial radius and being accreted to the star forming region (which allows mixing within the corona), as well as the time between gas being accreted to the star forming region and then forming stars (which allows mixing within the disc). Significant numbers of stars are formed from gas that cycles back through the hot halo after first accreting to the star forming region. Gas entering high mass galaxies is pre-enriched in low mass proto-galaxies prior to entering the virial radius of the central progenitor, with only small amounts of primordial gas accreted, even at high redshift (z~5). After entering the virial radius, significant further enrichment occurs prior to the accretion of the gas to the star forming region, with gas that is feeding the star forming region surpassing 0.1Z by z=0. Mixing with halo gas, itself enriched via galactic fountains, is thus crucial in determining the metallicity at which gas is accreted to the disc. The lowest mass simulation (Mvir~2x10^{10}Msun, with M*~10^7Msun), by contrast, accretes primordial gas through the virial radius and onto the disc at all times. Much like the classical analytical solutions to the `G-dwarf problem', overproduction of low-metallicity stars is ameliorated by the inefficiency of star formation. Finally, gas outflow/metal removal rates from star forming regions as a function of galactic mass are presented.
The Chemical Evolution of Galaxy Disks  [PDF]
Francesca Matteucci
Physics , 2000,
Abstract: We discuss the main ingredients necessary to build models of chemical evolution of spiral galaxies and in particular the Milky Way galaxy. These ingredients include: the star formation rate, the initial mass function, the stellar yields and the gas flows. Then we discuss models for the chemical evolution of galaxy disks and compare their predictions with the main observational constraints available for the Milky Way and other spirals. We conclude that it is very likely that the disk of our Galaxy and other spirals formed through an ``inside-out'' mechanism, where the central parts collapsed much faster than the external ones. This mechanism has important consequences for the appearance of galaxy disks as a function of redshift.
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