Abstract:
Photoproduction of $\eta$-mesons off deuteron is studied within the Alt-Grassberger-Sandhas formalism for different parameters of $\eta N$ interaction. The calculations revealed peaks in the energy dependence of the total cross-section.

Abstract:
Photoproduction of \eta mesons off light nuclei (d, 3He, 7Li) has been measured at the tagged photon beam of the Mainz MAMI accelerator with the combined Crystal Ball/TAPS detection system. Special attention was given to the threshold behavior of the reactions in view of possible indications for the formation of (quasi-) bound \eta -nucleus states, so-called \eta -mesic nuclei. A very strong threshold enhancement of coherent \eta photoproduction off 3He was found and coherent \eta photoproduction off 7Li was observed for the first time. Preliminary results will be discussed.

Abstract:
We study the photoproduction of $\eta^\prime$ mesons from nuclei near the threshold within the collision model based on the nuclear spectral function. The model takes properly into account both primary photon-nucleon and secondary pion-nucleon $\eta^\prime$ production processes as well as the effect of the nuclear $\eta^\prime$ mean-field potential on these processes. We find that the secondary pion-induced reaction channel ${\pi}N \to {\eta^\prime}N$ plays an insignificant role in the $\eta^\prime$ photoproduction off nuclei. We calculate the transparency ratio for $eta^\prime$ mesons and compare it to the available experimental data. The comparison indicates an inelastic ${\eta^\prime}N$ cross section of the order of 6-10 mb. We show that the existing transparency ratio measurements do not allow one to distinguish between two adopted $\eta^\prime$ in-medium modification scenarios. Our studies also demonstrate that the momentum distribution and excitation function for $\eta^\prime$ production in ${\gamma}A$ reactions reveal some sensitivity to these scenarios, which means that such observables may be an important tool to get a valuable information on the $\eta^\prime$ in-medium properties.

Abstract:
Photoproduction of $\eta$ mesons off $^{12}$C, $^{40}$Ca, $^{93}$Nb, and $^{nat}$Pb nuclei has been measured with a tagged photon beam with energies between 0.6 and 2.2 GeV. The experiment was performed at the Bonn ELSA accelerator with the combined setup of the Crystal Barrel and TAPS calorimeters. It aimed at the in-medium properties of the S$_{11}$(1535) nucleon resonance and the study of the absorption properties of nuclear matter for $\eta$ mesons. Careful consideration was given to contributions from $\eta\pi$ final states and secondary production mechanisms of $\eta$-mesons e.g. from inelastic $\pi N$ reactions of intermediate pions. The analysis of the mass number scaling shows that the nuclear absorption cross section $\sigma_{N\eta}$ for $\eta$ mesons is constant over a wide range of the $\eta$ momentum. The comparison of the excitation functions to data off the deuteron and to calculations in the framework of a BUU-model show no unexplained in-medium modifications of the S$_{11}$(1535).

Abstract:
The integrated cross section for the incoherent photoproduction of vector mesons on nuclei $\gamma^* A \to VX$, $X\not=A$, is calculated within Glauber theory and as a function of the photon energy. The inverse of the longitudinal momentum transfer is called coherence length $l_c$ and depends on the virtuality and the energy of the photon. Nuclear transmission factors strongly depend on $l_c/R_A$ ($R_A$ is the nuclear radius) and this effect may interfere with the search for color transparency effects.

Abstract:
Quasi-free photoproduction of $\eta$-mesons has been measured off nucleons bound in $^3$He nuclei for incident photon energies from the threshold region up to 1.4 GeV. The experiment was performed at the tagged photon facility of the Mainz MAMI accelerator with an almost $4\pi$ covering electromagnetic calorimeter, combining the TAPS and Crystal Ball detectors. The $\eta$-mesons were detected in coincidence with the recoil nucleons. This allowed a comparison of the production cross section off quasi-free protons and quasi-free neutrons and a full kinematic reconstruction of the final state, eliminating effects from nuclear Fermi motion. In the $S_{11}$(1535) resonance peak, the data agree with the neutron/proton cross section ratio extracted from measurements with deuteron targets. More importantly, the prominent structure observed in photoproduction off quasi-free neutrons bound in the deuteron is also clearly observed. Its parameters (width, strength) are consistent with the expectations from the deuteron results. On an absolute scale the cross sections for both quasi-free protons and neutrons are suppressed with respect to the deuteron target pointing to significant nuclear final state interaction effects.

Abstract:
Coherent photoproduction of $\eta$-mesons off $^3$He, i.e. the reaction $\gamma ^3{He}\rightarrow \eta ^3{He}$, has been investigated in the near-threshold region. The experiment was performed at the Glasgow tagged photon facility of the Mainz MAMI accelerator with the combined Crystal Ball - TAPS detector. Angular distributions and the total cross section were measured using the $\eta\rightarrow \gamma\gamma$ and $\eta\rightarrow 3\pi^0\rightarrow 6\gamma$ decay channels. The observed extremely sharp rise of the cross section at threshold and the behavior of the angular distributions are evidence for a strong $\eta {^3{He}}$ final state interaction, pointing to the existence of a resonant state. The search for further evidence of this state in the excitation function of $\pi^0$-proton back-to-back emission in the $\gamma ^3{He}\rightarrow \pi^0 pX$ reaction revealed a very complicated structure of the background and could not support previous conclusions.

Abstract:
The $\eta$-meson photoproduction cross sections have been measured on the C and Cu targets for the photon energies between 600 and 1100 MeV to investigate the behavior of the $S_{11}$(1535) resonance in a nucleus. The excitation functions of the cross section as well as the angular and momentum distributions of $\eta$-mesons are in quantitative agreement with the Quantum Molecular Dynamics (QMD) model calculations in which the $\eta$-meson emission processes other than the $S_{11}$(1535) resonance are also incorporated as proposed in the $\eta$-MAID model. It is shown that the excitation of the $D_{15}$(1675) resonance might play an important role for $E_{\gamma}>900$ MeV.

Abstract:
The subject of this doctoral study is the pseudoscalar meson photoproduction from nuclei. Two types of processes are investigated in this regard: coherent and quasifree processes. In the case of the coherent process, we study it for the photoproduction of pion and eta mesons. We place special emphasis on the various sources that put into question earlier nonrelativistic-impulse-approximation calculations. These include: final-state interactions, relativistic effects, off-shell ambiguities, and violations to the impulse approximation. By far the largest uncertainty emerges from the ambiguity in extending the many on-shell-equivalent representations of the elementary amplitude off the mass shell. In the case of the quasifree process, we study it for the photoproduction of the kaon meson. We compute the recoil polarization of the lambda-hyperon and the photon asymmetry as well as the differential cross section. By introducing the notion of a ``bound-nucleon propagator'' we exploit Feynman's trace techniques to develop closed-form, analytic expressions for all photoproduction observables. Our results indicate that polarization observables are sensitive only to the fundamental physics, making them ideal tools for the study of modifications to the elementary process in the nuclear medium.

Abstract:
We propose a simple meson-exchange model of the photoproduction of $\rho$- and $\omega$-mesons off protons near threshold ($E_\gamma$ less than 2 GeV). This model provides a good description of the available data and implies a large $\rho$-nucleon interaction in the scalar channel ($\sigma$-exchange). We use this phenomenological interaction to estimate the leading contribution to the self-energy of $\rho$-mesons in matter. The implications of our calculation for experimental studies of the $\rho$-meson mass in nuclei are discussed.