Abstract:
We derive an effective cluster model to address the transport properties of mutually interacting small polarons. We propose a decoupling scheme where the hopping dynamics of any given particle is determined by separating out explicitly the degrees of freedom of its environment, which are treated as a statistical bath. The general cavity method developed here shows that the long-range Coulomb repulsion between the carriers leads to a net increase of the thermal activation barrier for electrical transport, and hence to a sizable reduction of the carrier mobility. A mean-field calculation of this effect is provided, based on the known correlation functions of the interacting liquid in two and three dimensions. The present theory gives a natural explanation of recent experiments performed in organic field-effect transistors with highly polarizable gate dielectrics, and might well find application in other classes of polaronic systems such as doped transition-metal oxides.

Abstract:
A conduction electron (or hole) together with its self-induced polarisation in a polar semiconductor or an ionic crystal forms a quasi-particle, which is called a polaron. The polaron concept is of interest, not only because it describes the particular physical properties of charge carriers in polarizable solids but also because it constitutes an interesting field theoretical model of a fermion interacting with a scalar boson field. The early work on polarons was concerned with general theoretical formulations and approximations, which now constitute the standard polaron theory, and with experiments on cyclotron resonance and transport properties. Because of the more recent interest in the two-dimensional electron gas, the study of the polaron in two dimensions became important. Again cyclotron resonance, and therefore the behaviour of polarons in magnetic fields, was a key issue. When two electrons (or two holes) interact with each other simultaneously through the Coulomb force and via the electron-phonon-electron interaction, either two independent polarons can occur or a bound state of two polarons - a bipolaron - can arise. Bipolarons have been considered to possibly play a role in high-Tc superconductivity. The polaron concept has been extended to several systems where one or many fermions interact with a bath of bosons, e. g., small polaron, piezopolaron, polaronic exciton, spin - or magnetic - polaron, "ripplonic polaron", "plasmaron", "hydrated polarons" etc.

Abstract:
A model calculation using the Darwin Lagrangian is carried out for a magnet consisting of two current-carrying charges constrained by centripetal forces to move in a circular path in the presence of the electric field from a distant external point charge. In the limit that the magnet's two charges are non-interacting, the calculation recovers the only valid calculation for hidden mechanical momentum. However, if the magnet's charges are mutually interacting, then there is internal electromagnetic linear momentum associated with the perturbed magnet's electrostatic charge distribution and the motion of the magnet's charges. This internal electromagnetic momentum does not seem to be recognized as distinct from the familiar external electromagnetic momentum associated with the electric field of the external charge and the magnetic field of the unperturbed magnet. In the multiparticle limit, the hidden mechanical momentum becomes negligible while the internal electromagnetic momentum provides the compensating linear momentum required by the relativistic conservation law connecting the total linear momentum to motion of the center of energy. Whereas the changes in the external electromagnetic momentum are often associated with magnetic forces of order $1/c^{2},$ changes in the internal electromagnetic momentum are associated with the electrical forces of order $1/c^{2}$. These electrical forces are relevant to the Shockley-James paradox and to the experimentally observed Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher phase shifts.

Abstract:
We study the extremely polarized two-component Fermi gas with a mass imbalance in the strongly interacting regime. Specifically we focus on the experimentally available mixture of ${}^6$Li and ${}^{40}$K atoms. In this regime spin polarons, i.e., dressed minority atoms, form. We consider the spectral function for the minority atoms, from which the lifetime and the effective mass of the spin polaron can be determined. Moreover, we predict the radio-frequency (RF) spectrum and the momentum distribution for the spin polarons for experiments with ${}^6$Li and ${}^{40}$K atoms. Subsequently we study the relaxation of the motion of the spin polaron due to spin drag.

Abstract:
The ground-state energy, the addition energies and the optical absorption spectra are derived for interacting polarons in parabolic quantum dots in three and two dimensions. A path integral formalism for identical particles is used in order to take into account the fermion statistics. The approach is applied to both closed-shell and open-shell systems of interacting polarons. Using a generalization of the Jensen-Feynman variational principle, the ground-state energy of a confined N-polaron system is analyzed as a function of N and of the electron-phonon coupling constant. As distinct from the few-electron systems without the electron-phonon interaction, three types of spin polarization are possible for the ground state of the few-polaron systems: (i) a spin-polarized state, (ii) a state where the spin is determined by Hund's rule, (iii) a state with the minimal possible spin. A transition from a state fulfilling Hund's rule, to a spin-polarized state occurs when decreasing the electron density. In the strong-coupling limit, the system of interacting polarons turns into a state with the minimal possible spin. These transitions should be experimentally observable in the optical absorption spectra of quantum dots.

Abstract:
This review will deal with several types of free charge localisation in oxides and their consequences on the effective dielectric spectra of such materials. The first one is the polaronic localisation at the unit cell scale on residual impurities in ferroelectric networks. The second one is the collective localisation of free charge at macroscopic interfaces like surfaces, electrodes and grain boundaries in ceramics. Polarons have been observed in many oxide perovskites mostly when cations having several stable electronic configurations are present. In manganites, the density of such polarons is so high as to drive a net lattice of interacting polarons. On the other hand, in ferroelectric materials like BaTiO3 and LiNbO3, the density of polarons is usually very small but they can influence strongly the macroscopic conductivity. The contribution of such polarons to the dielectric spectra of ferroelectric materials is described. Even residual impurities as for example Iron can induce well defined anomalies at very low temperatures. This is mostly resulting from the interaction between localised polarons and the highly polarisable ferroelectric network in which they are embedded. The case of such residual polarons in SrTiO3 will be described in more details, emphasizing the quantum polaron state at liquid helium temperatures. Recently, several non-ferroelectric oxides have been shown to display giant effective dielectric permittivity. It is first shown that the frequency/temperature behaviour of such parameters is very similar in very different compounds (donor doped BaTiO3, CaCu3Ti4O12, LuFe2O4,Li doped NiO,...). This similarity calls for a common origin of the giant dielectric permittivity in these compounds. A space charge localisation at macroscopic interfaces can be the key for such extremely high dielectric permittivity.

Abstract:
In the present study we revise the possible polaron contribution to the charge and energy transfer over long distances in biomolecules like DNA. The harmonic and the simple inharmonic ($U(x) = x^2/2 - \beta x^3/3$) lattices are considered. The systems of PDEs are derived in the continuum approximation. The PDEs have the one-soliton solution for polarons on the harmonic lattice. It describes a moving polaron, the polaron velocity lies in the region from zero to the sound velocity and depends on the polaron amplitude. The PDEs describing polarons on the inharmonic lattice also have the one-soliton solution only in the case of special relation between parameters (parameter of inharmonicity $\beta$ and parameter of electron-phonon interaction $\alpha$). Polaron dynamics is numerically investigated in the wide range of parameters, where the analytical solutions are not available. Supersonic polarons are observed on inharmonic lattice with high inharmonicity. There is the range of parameters $\alpha$ and $\beta$ where exists a family of unusual stable moving polarons with the envelope consisting of several peaks (polarobreather solution). The results are in qualitative agreement with recent experiments on the charge transport in DNA.

Abstract:
The Holstein Hubbard and Holstein t--J models are studied for a wide range of phonon frequencies, electron--electron and electron--phonon interaction strengths on finite lattices with up to ten sites by means of direct Lanczos diagonalization. Previously the necessary truncation of the phononic Hilbert space caused serious limitations to either very small systems (four or even two sites) or to weak electron--phonon coupling, in particular in the adiabatic regime. Using parallel computers we were able to investigate the transition from `large' to `small' polarons in detail. By resolving the low--lying eigenstates of the Hamiltonian and by calculating the spectral function we can identify a polaron band in the strong--coupling case, whose dispersion deviates from the free--particle dispersion at low and intermediate phonon frequencies. For two electrons (holes) we establish the existence of bipolaronic states and discuss the formation of a bipolaron band. For the 2D Holstein t--J model we demonstrate that the formation of hole--polarons is favoured by strong Coulomb correlations. Analyzing the hole--hole correlation functions we find that hole binding is enhanced as a dynamical effect of the electron--phonon interaction.

Abstract:
We consider an imbalanced mixture of two different ultracold Fermi gases, which are strongly interacting. Calling spin-down the minority component and spin-up the majority component, the limit of small relative density $x=n\ds /n\us$ is usually considered as a gas of non interacting polarons. This allows to calculate, in the expansion of the total energy of the system in powers of $x$, the terms proportional to $x$ (corresponding to the binding energy of the polaron) and to $x^{5/3}$ (corresponding to the kinetic energy of the polaron Fermi sea). We investigate in this paper terms physically due to an interaction between polarons and which are proportional to $x^2$ and $x^{7/3}$. We find three such terms. A first one corresponds to the overlap between the clouds dressing two polarons. The two other ones are due to the modification of the single polaron binding energy caused by the non-zero density of polarons. The second term is due to the restriction of the polaron momentum by the Fermi sea formed by the other polarons. The last one results from the modification of the spin-up Fermi sea brought by the other polarons. The calculation of all these terms is made at the simplest level of a single particle-hole excitation. It is performed for all the possible interaction strengths within the stability range of the polaron. At unitarity the last two terms give a fairly weak contribution while the first one is strong and leads to a marked disagreement with Monte-Carlo results. The possible origins of this discrepancy are discussed.

Abstract:
We consider solitary wave solutions to the Dirac--Coulomb system both from physical and mathematical points of view. Fermions interacting with gravity in the Newtonian limit are described by the model of Dirac fermions with the Coulomb attraction. This model also appears in certain condensed matter systems with emergent Dirac fermions interacting via optical phonons. In this model, the classical soliton solutions of equations of motion describe the physical objects that may be called polarons, in analogy to the solutions of the Choquard equation. We develop analytical methods for the Dirac--Coulomb system, showing that the no-node gap solitons for sufficiently small values of charge are linearly (spectrally) stable.