Abstract:
We propose a technique, using interferometry of Bose-Einstein condensed alkali atoms, for the detection of sub-micron-range forces. It may extend present searches at 1 micron by 6 to 9 orders of magnitude, deep into the theoretically interesting regime of 1000 times gravity. We give several examples of both four-dimensional particles (moduli), as well as higher-dimensional particles -- vectors and scalars in a large bulk-- that could mediate forces accessible by this technique.

Abstract:
Motivated by recent progress in trapping Bose-Einstein condensed atoms in toroidal potentials, we examine solitary-wave solutions of the nonlinear Schr\"odinger equation subject to periodic boundary conditions. When the circumference of the ring is much larger than the size of the wave, the density profile is well approximated by that of an infinite ring, however the density and the velocity of propagation cannot vanish simultaneously. When the size of the ring becomes comparable to the size of the wave, the density variation becomes sinusoidal and the velocity of propagation saturates to a constant value.

Abstract:
We investigate the behavior of large amplitude oscillations of a trapped Bose-condensed gas of alkali atoms at zero temperature, by solving the equations of hydrodynamics for collective modes. Due to the atom-atom interaction, the equations of motion are nonlinear and give rise to significant frequency shift and mode coupling. We provide analytic expressions for the frequency shift, pointing out the crucial role played by the anisotropy of the confining potential. For special values of the anisotropy parameter the mode coupling is particularly strong and the frequency shift becomes large, revealing a peculiar behavior of the Bose-condensed gas. Consequences on the theory of collapse and revival of collective excitations are also discussed.

Abstract:
We propose a direct, coherent coupling scheme that can create massively entangled states of Bose-Einstein condensed atoms. Our idea is based on an effective interaction between two atoms from coherent Raman processes through a (two atom) molecular intermediate state. We compare our scheme with other recent proposals for generation of massive entanglement of Bose condensed atoms.

Abstract:
We propose a direct, coherent coupling scheme that can create massively entangled states of Bose-Einstein condensed atoms. Our idea is based on an effective interaction between two atoms from coherent Raman processes through a (two atom) molecular intermediate state. We compare our scheme with other recent proposals for generation of massive entanglement of Bose condensed atoms. We also present explicit calculations that support detecting maximally entangled states without requiring single atom resolved measurements.

Abstract:
We explore the quantum dynamics of photoassociation of Bose-Einstein condensed atoms into molecules using an optical cavity field. Inside of an optical resonator, photoassociation of quantum degenerate atoms involves the interaction of three coupled quantum fields for the atoms, molecules, and the photons. The feedback created by a high-Q optical cavity causes the cavity field to become a dynamical quantity whose behavior is linked in a nonlinear manner to the atoms inside and where vacuum fluctuations have a more important role than in free space. We develop and compare several methods for calculating the dynamics of the atom-molecule conversion process with a coherently driven cavity field. We first introduce an alternate operator representation for the Hamiltonian from which we derive an improved form of mean field theory and an approximate solution of the Heisenberg-Langevin (HL) equations that properly accounts for quantum noise in the cavity field. It is shown that our improved mean field theory corrects several deficiencies in traditional mean field theory based on expectation values of annihilation/creation operators. Also, we show by direct comparison to numerical solutions of the density matrix equations that our approximate quantum solution of HL equations gives an accurate description of weakly or undriven cavities where mean field theories break down.

Abstract:
There are surface modes on the Bose-Einstein condensed Na atoms so that the number of vortices diverges when the stirring frequency becomes equal to that of the surface waves. We introduce the finite life time of the surface modes so that the number of vortices becomes finite. Usually the number of vortices is a linear function of the stirring frequency. We find that this linearity is destroyed by the finite life time and a peaked function emerges with several peaks, one for each surface mode. The vortices become normal, as they should be, so that there occurs a phase transition from normal to the superfluid state.

Abstract:
The dynamics of evaporative cooling of magnetically trapped $^{87}$Rb atoms is studied on the basis of the quantum kinetic theory of a Bose gas. We carried out the quantitative calculations of the time evolution of conventional evaporative cooling where the frequency of the radio-frequency magnetic field is swept exponentially. This "exponential-sweep cooling" is known to become inefficient at the final stage of the cooling process due to a serious three-body recombination loss. We precisely examine how the growth of a Bose-Einstein condensate depends on the experimental parameters of evaporative cooling, such as the initial number of trapped atoms, the initial temperature, and the bias field of a magnetic trap. It is shown that three-body recombination drastically depletes the trapped $^{87}$Rb atoms as the system approaches the quantum degenerate region and the number of condensed atoms finally becomes insensitive to these experimental parameters. This result indicates that the final number of condensed atoms is well stabilized by a large nonlinear three-body loss against the fluctuations of experimental conditions in evaporative cooling.

Abstract:
We propose a feasible scheme to realize nonlinear Ramsey interferometry with a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate, where the nonlinearity arises from the interaction between coherent atoms. In our scheme, two Rosen-Zener pulses are separated by an intermediate holding period of variable duration and through varying the holding period we have observed nice Ramsey interference patterns in time domain. In contrast to the standard Ramsey fringes our nonlinear Ramsey patterns display diversiform structures ascribed to the interplay of the nonlinearity and asymmetry. In particular, we find that the frequency of the nonlinear Ramsey fringes exactly reflects the strength of nonlinearity as well as the asymmetry of system. Our finding suggests a potential application of the nonlinear Ramsey interferometry in calibrating the atomic parameters such as scattering length and energy spectrum.

Abstract:
We investigate the dynamic behavior of a Bose-condensed gas of alkali atoms interacting with repulsive forces and confined in a magnetic trap at zero temperature. Using the Thomas-Fermi approximation, we rewrite the Gross-Pitaevskii equation in the form of the hydrodynamic equations of superfluids. We present solutions describing large amplitude oscillations of the atomic cloud as well as the expansion of the gas after switching off the trap. We compare our theoretical predictions with the recent experimental data obtained at Jila and MIT.