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 Noam Soker Physics , 2011, Abstract: In the core-degenerate (CD) scenario for the formation of Type Ia supernovae (SNe) the Chandrasekhar or super-Chandrasekhar mass white dwarf (WD) is formed at the termination of the common envelope phase or during the planetary nebula phase, from a merger of a WD companion with the hot core of a massive asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star. The WD is destructed and accreted onto the more massive core. In the CD scenario the rapidly rotating WD is formed shortly after the stellar formation episode, and the delay from stellar formation to explosion is basically determined by the spin-down time of the rapidly rotating merger remnant. The spin-down is due to the magneto-dipole radiation torque. Several properties of the CD scenario make it attractive compared with the double-degenerate (DD) scenario. (1) Off-center ignition of carbon during the merger process is not likely to occur. (2) No large envelope is formed. Hence avoiding too much mass loss that might bring the merger remnant below the critical mass. (3) This model explains the finding that more luminous SNe Ia occur preferentially in star forming galaxies.
 Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu2580 Abstract: We follow the mass expelled during the WD-WD merger process in a particular case of the Double-Degenerate (DD) scenario for Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), and find that the interaction of the SN ejecta with the resulting wind affects the early (first day) light curve in a way that may be in conflict with some SN Ia observations, if the detonation occurs shortly after the merger (i.e., $10^3~{\rm sec} \lesssim t_{\rm exp} \lesssim 1~{\rm day}$). The main source of the expelled mass is a disk-wind, or jets that are launched by the accretion disk around the more massive WD during the viscous phase of the merger. This disk-originated matter (DOM) will be shocked and heated by the SN ejecta from an explosion, leading to additional radiation in the early lightcurve. This enhanced early radiation could then be interpreted as an explosion originating from a progenitor having an inferred radius of one solar radius or more, in conflict with observations of SN 2011fe.
 Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/794/2/L28 Abstract: The hybrid CONe white dwarfs (WDs) have been suggested to be possible progenitors of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). In this article, we systematically studied the hybrid CONe WD + He star scenario for the progenitors of SNe Ia, in which a hybrid CONe WD increases its mass to the Chandrasekhar mass limit by accreting He-rich material from a non-degenerate He star. According to a series of detailed binary population synthesis simulations, we obtained the SN Ia birthrates and delay times for this scenario. The SN Ia birthrates for this scenario are ~0.033-0.539*10^(-3)yr^(-1), which roughly accounts for 1-18% of all SNe Ia. The estimated delay times are ~28Myr-178Myr, which are the youngest SNe Ia predicted by any progenitor model so far. We suggest that SNe Ia from this scenario may provide an alternative explanation of type Iax SNe. We also presented some properties of the donors at the point when the WDs reach the Chandrasekhar mass. These properties may be a good starting point for investigating the surviving companions of SNe Ia, and for constraining the progenitor scenario studied in this work.
 Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv824 Abstract: The core-degenerate (CD) scenario for type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) involves the merger of the hot core of an asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star and a white dwarf, and might contribute a non-negligible fraction of all thermonuclear supernovae. Despite its potential interest, very few studies, and based on only crude simplifications, have been devoted to investigate this possible scenario, compared with the large efforts invested to study some other scenarios. Here we perform the first three-dimensional simulations of the merger phase, and find that this process can lead to the formation of a massive white dwarf, as required by this scenario. We consider two situations, according to the mass of the circumbinary disk formed around the system during the final stages of the common envelope phase. If the disk is massive enough, the stars merge on a highly eccentric orbit. Otherwise, the merger occurs after the circumbinary disk has been ejected and gravitational wave radiation has brought the stars close to the Roche lobe radius on a nearly circular orbit. Not surprisingly, the overall characteristics of the merger remnants are similar to those found for the double-degenerate (DD) scenario, independently of the very different core temperature and of the orbits of the merging stars. They consist of a central massive white dwarf, surrounded by a hot, rapidly rotating corona and a thick debris region.
 Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sts053 Abstract: We calculate the expected number of type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) in the core-degenerate (CD) scenario and find it to match observations within the uncertainties of the code. In the CD scenario the super-Chandrasekhar mass white dwarf (WD) is formed at the termination of the common envelope phase from a merger of a WD companion with the hot core of a massive asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star. We use a simple population synthesis code that avoids the large uncertainties involved in estimating the final orbital separation of the common envelope evolution. Instead, we assume that systems where the core of the secondary AGB star is more massive than the WD remnant of the primary star merge at the termination of the common envelope phase. We also use a simple prescription to count systems that have strong interaction during the AGB phase, but not during the earlier red giant branch (RGB) phase. That a very simple population synthesis code that uses the basics of stellar evolution ingredients can match the observed rate of SN Ia might suggest that the CD-scenario plays a major role in forming SN Ia.
 Physics , 2012, Abstract: Recurrent novae are binaries harboring a very massive white dwarf (WD), as massive as the Chandrasekhar mass, because of their short recurrence periods of nova outbursts of 10-100 years. Thus, recurrent novae are considered as candidates of progenitors of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). In fact, the SN Ia PTF11kx showed evidence that its progenitor is a symbiotic recurrent nova. The binary parameters of recurrent novae have been well determined, especially for the ones with frequent outbursts, U Sco and RS Oph, which provide useful information on the elementary processes in binary evolution toward SNe Ia. Therefore we use them as testbeds for binary evolution models. For example, the original double degenerate (DD) scenario cannot reproduce RS Oph type recurrent novae, whereas the new single degenerate (SD) scenario proposed by Hachisu et al. (1999) naturally can. We review main differences between the SD and DD scenarios, especially for their basic processes of binary evolution. We also discuss observational support for each physical process. The original DD scenario is based on the physics in 1980s, whereas the SD scenario on more recent physics including the new opacity, mass-growth efficiency of WDs, and optically thick winds developed in nova outbursts.
 Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/767/1/L14 Abstract: Several recently discovered peculiar type Ia supernovae seem to demand an altogether new formation theory that might help explain the puzzling dissimilarities between them and the standard type Ia supernovae. The most striking aspect of the observational analysis is the necessity of invoking super-Chandrasekhar white dwarfs having masses ~ 2.1-2.8M_sun, M_sun being the mass of Sun, as their most probable progenitors. Strongly magnetized white dwarfs having super-Chandrasekhar masses were already established to be potential candidates for the progenitors of peculiar type Ia supernovae. Owing to the Landau quantization of the underlying electron degenerate gas, theoretical results yielded the observationally inferred mass range. Here we sketch a possible evolutionary scenario by which super-Chandrasekhar white dwarfs could be formed by accretion on to a commonly observed magnetized white dwarf, invoking the phenomenon of flux freezing. This opens the multiple possible evolutions ending in supernova explosions of super-Chandrasekhar white dwarfs having masses within the range stated above. We point out that our proposal has observational support, like, the recent discovery of a large number of magnetized white dwarfs by SDSS.
 Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201425294 Abstract: The super-Eddington wind scenario has been proposed as an alternative way for producing type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). The super-Eddington wind can naturally prevent the carbon--oxygen white dwarfs (CO WDs) with high mass-accretion rates from becoming red-giant-like stars. Furthermore, it works in low-metallicity environments, which may explain SNe Ia observed at high redshifts. In this article, we systematically investigated the most prominent single-degenerate WD+MS channel based on the super-Eddington wind scenario. We combined the Eggleton stellar evolution code with a rapid binary population synthesis (BPS) approach to predict SN Ia birthrates for the WD+MS channel by adopting the super-Eddington wind scenario and detailed mass-accumulation efficiencies of H-shell flashes on the WDs. Our BPS calculations found that the estimated SN Ia birthrates for the WD+MS channel are ~0.009-0.315*10^{-3}{yr}^{-1} if we adopt the Eddington accretion rate as the critical accretion rate, which are much lower than that of the observations (<10% of the observed SN Ia birthrates). This indicates that the WD+MS channel only contributes a small proportion of all SNe Ia. The birthrates in this simulation are lower than previous studies, the main reason of which is that new mass-accumulation efficiencies of H-shell flashes are adopted. We also found that the critical mass-accretion rate has a significant influence on the birthrates of SNe Ia. Meanwhile, the results of our BPS calculations are sensitive to the values of the common-envelope ejection efficiency.
 Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/778/2/L32 Abstract: The accretion of hydrogen-rich material onto carbon-oxygen white dwarfs (CO WDs) is crucial for understanding type Ia supernova (SN Ia) from the single-degenerate model, but this process has not been well understood due to the numerical difficulties in treating H and He flashes during the accretion. For the CO WD masses from 0.5 to $1.378\,{M}_\odot$ and accretion rates in the range from $10^{-8}$ to $10^{-5}\,{M}_\odot\,\mbox{yr}^{-1}$, we simulated the accretion of solar-composition material onto CO WDs using the state-of-the-art stellar evolution code of {\sc MESA}. For comparison with the steady-state models (e.g \citet{nskh07}), we firstly ignored the contribution from nuclear burning to the luminosity when determining the Eddington accretion rate and found that the properties of H burning in our accreting CO WD models are similar to those from the steady-state models, except that the critical accretion rates at which the WDs turn into red giants or H-shell flashes occur on their surfaces are slightly higher than those from the steady-state models. However, the super-Eddington wind is triggered at much lower accretion rates, than previously thought, when the contribution of nuclear burning to the total luminosity is included. This super-Eddington wind naturally prevents the CO WDs with high accretion rates from becoming red giants, thus presenting an alternative to the optically thick wind proposed by \cite{hkn96}. Furthermore, the super-Eddington wind works in low-metallicity environments, which may explain SNe Ia observed at high redshifts.
 Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/810/2/137 Abstract: The nature of the Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) progenitors remains still uncertain. This is a major issue for galaxy evolution models since both chemical and energetic feedback play a major role in the gas dynamics, star formation and therefore in the overall stellar evolution. The progenitor models for the SNIa available in the literature propose different distributions for regulating the explosion times of these events. These functions are known as the Delay Time Distributions (DTDs). This work is the first one in a series of papers aiming at studying five different DTDs for SNIa. Here, we implement and analyse the Single Degenerate scenario (SD) in galaxies dominated by a rapid quenching of the star formation, displaying the majority of the stars concentrated in the bulge component. We find a good fit to both the present observed SNIa rates in spheroidal dominated galaxies, and to the [O/Fe] ratios shown by the bulge of the Milky Way. Additionally, the SD scenario is found to reproduce a correlation between the specific SNIa rate and the specific star formation rate, which closely resembles the observational trend, at variance with previous works. Our results suggest that SNIa observations in galaxies with very low and very high specific star formation rates can help to impose more stringent constraints on the DTDs and therefore on SNIa progenitors.
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