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Simultaneous optical monitoring of BL Lacertae object S5 0716+714 with high temporal resolution  [PDF]
Zhongyi Man,Xiaoyuan Zhang,Jianghua Wu,Qirong Yuan
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: We have monitored the BL Lacertae object S5 0716+714 simultaneously in the B, R and I bands on three nights in November 2014. The average time resolution is quite high (73s, 34s, 58s for the filters B, R and I), which can help us trace the profile of the variation and search for the short inter-band time delay. Intra-day variability was about 0.1 mag on the first two nights and more than 0.3 mag on the third. A bluer-when-brighter color behavior was found. An clear loop path can be seen on the color-magnitude diagram of the third night, revealing possible time delays between variations at high and low energies. It is the first time that the intra-day spectral hysteresis loop has been found so obviously in the optical band. We used the interpolated cross-correlation function method to further confirm the time delay and calculated the values of lag between light curves at different wavelengths on each night. On the third night, variations in the R and B bands is approximately 1.5 minutes lagging behind the I band. Such optical time delay is probably due to the interplay of different processes of electrons in the jet of the blazar.
Synchrotron and Inverse Compton Variability in the BL Lacertae object S5 0716+714  [PDF]
P. Giommi,E. Massaro,L. Chiappetti,E. C. Ferrara,G. Ghisellini,Minhwan Jang,M. Maesano,H. R. Miller,F. Montagni,R. Nesci,P. Padovani,E. Perlman,C. M. Raiteri,S. Sclavi,G. Tagliaferri,G. Tosti,M. Villata
Physics , 1999,
Abstract: We report intensity variations of different spectral components in the BL Lac object S5 0716+714 detected during coordinated BeppoSAX and optical observations in 1996 and 1998. The transition between synchrotron and inverse Compton emission has been clearly detected as sharp X-ray spectral breaks at around 2-3 keV on both occasions. Correlated optical and soft X-ray variability was found during the second BeppoSAX pointing when intensive optical monitoring could be arranged. The hard (Compton) component changed by a factor of 2 between the two observations, but remained stable within each exposure. During events of rapid variability S5 0716+714 showed spectral steepening with intensity, a behaviour rarely observed in BL Lacs. We interpret these findings as the probable consequence of a shift of the synchrotron peak emission from the IR/optical band to higher energies, causing the synchrotron tail to push into the soft X-ray band more and more as the source brightens.
The optical microvariability and spectral changes of the BL Lacertae object S5 0716+714  [PDF]
H. Poon,J. H. Fan,J. N. Fu
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/185/2/511
Abstract: We monitored the BL Lac object S5 0716+714 in the optical band during October 2008, December 2008 and February 2009 with a best temporal resolution of about 5 minutes in the BVRI bands. Four fast flares were observed with amplitudes ranging from 0.3 to 0.75 mag. The source remained active during the whole monitoring campaign, showing microvariability in all days except for one. The overall variability amplitudes are delta B ~ 0.89 mag, delta V ~ 0.80 mag, delta R ~ 0.73 mag and delta I ~0.51 mag. Typical timescales of microvariability range from 2 to 8 hours. The overall V - R color index ranges from 0.37 to 0.59. Strong bluer- when-brighter chromatism was found on internight timescales. However, different spectral behavior was found on intranight timescales. A possible time lag of ~ 11 mins between B and I bands was found on one night. The shock-in-jet model and geometric effects can be applied to explain the source's intranight behavior.
Rms-flux relation in the optical fast variability data of BL Lacertae object S5 0716+714  [PDF]
Gabriela-Raluca Mocanu,Bulcsu Sandor
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1007/s10509-012-1164-9
Abstract: The possibility that BL Lac S5 0716+714 exhibits a linear root mean square (rms)-flux relation in its IntraDay Variability (IDV) is analysed. The results may be used as an argument in the existing debate regarding the source of optical IDV in Active Galactic Nuclei. 63 time series in different optical bands were used. A linear rms-flux relation at a confidence level higher than 65% was recovered for less than 8% of the cases. We were able to check if the magnitude is log-normally distributed for eight timeseries and found, with a confidence > 95%, that this is not the case.
Seven-Year Multi-Color Optical Monitoring of BL Lacertae Object S5 0716+714  [PDF]
Yan Dai,Jianghua Wu,Zong-Hong Zhu,Xu Zhou,Jun Ma,Qirong Yuan,Lingzhi Wang
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/204/2/22
Abstract: We have monitored the BL Lac object S5 0716+714 in five intermediate optical wavebands from 2004 September to 2011 April. Here we present the data that include 8661 measurements which represents one of the largest databases obtained for an object at optical domain. A simple analysis of the data indicates that the object was active in most time, and intraday variability was frequently observed. In total, the object varied by 2.614 magnitudes in the $i$ band. Strong bluer-when-brighter chromatism was observed on long, intermediate, and short timescales.
Simultaneous B'V'R' Monitoring of BL Lacertae Object S5~0716+714 and Detection of Inter-Band Time Delay  [PDF]
Jianghua Wu,Markus Boettcher,Xu Zhou,Xiangtao He,Jun Ma,Zhaoji Jiang
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/0004-6256/143/5/108
Abstract: We present the results of our optical monitoring of the BL Lac object S5 0716+714 on seven nights in 2006 December. The monitoring was carried out simultaneously at three optical wavelengths with a novel photometric system. The object did not show large-amplitude internight variations during this period. Intranight variations were observed on four nights and probably on one more. Strong bluer-when-brighter chromatism was detected on both intranight and internight timescales. The intranight variation amplitude decreases in the wavelength sequence of B', R', and V'. Cross correlation analyses revealed that the variability at the $B'$ and $V'$ bands lead that at the $R'$ band by about 30 minutes on one night.
Optical-IUE observations of the gamma-ray loud BL Lacertae object S5 0716+714: data and interpretation  [PDF]
G. Ghisellini,M. Villata,C. M. Raiteri,S. Bosio,G. De Francesco,G. Latini,M. Maesano,E. Massaro,F. Montagni,R. Nesci,G. Tosti,M. Fiorucci,E. Pian,L. Maraschi,A. Treves,A. Comastri,M. Mignoli
Physics , 1997,
Abstract: We monitored the BL Lac object S5 0716+714 in the optical band during the period November 1994-April 1995, which includes the time of a gamma-ray observation by the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on February 14--28, 1995. The light curves in the R and B bands show fast fluctuations superimposed on longer timescale variations. The color index correlates with intensity during the rapid flares (the spectrum is flatter when the flux is higher), but it is rather insensitive to the long term trends. Over the 5 month observational period the light curve shows an overall brightening of about 1 mag followed by a fast decline. The EGRET pointing covers part of the very bright phase (V about 13.2) and the initial decline. An ultraviolet spectrum was also obtained with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) (1200-3000 A) during the EGRET observations. The variability of the optical emission of S5 0716+714 by itself sets important constraints on the magnetic field strength and on the physical processes responsible for it. Interpreting the whole electromagnetic spectrum with synchrotron self Compton models leads to the prediction of a bright gamma-ray state during the EGRET pointing. We discuss how the gamma-ray data could be used as a diagnostic of the proposed models.
A Quasi-Periodic Oscillation of ~ 30 Minutes in the X-ray Light Curve of the BL Lac S5 0716+714  [PDF]
Alok C. Gupta,Paul J. Wiita,Jeewan C. Pandey,A. K. Srivastava
Physics , 2009,
Abstract: We withdraw our claim that a component in an XMM-Newton satellite light curve of the BL Lacertae object S5 0716 + 714 shows quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) of $\sim$30 minutes. Although both our original periodogram and wavelet analyses gave consistent results, the data do not lead to a statistically significant result once red-noise at low frequencies is properly taken into account for periodogram analyses.
Power Spectral Distribution of the BL Lac Object S5 0716+714  [PDF]
G. R. Mocanu,A. Marcu
Physics , 2012,
Abstract: Observational data in the BVRI bands of the variable BL Lacertae Object S5 0716+714 is discussed from the point of view of its Power Spectral Distribution (PSD). A model of the type $P(f) = \beta f^{-1} [1 + (\frac{f} {\delta}) ^{\alpha -1}]^{-1} + \gamma $ is fitted to the data for four null hypothesis and the Bayesian $p$ parameter for the fits is calculated. Spectral slopes with values ranging from 1.083 to 2.65 are obtained, with medium values for each band of $\bar{\alpha}_B =2.028$, $\bar{\alpha}_V = 1.809$, $\bar{\alpha}_R = 1.932$ and $\bar{\alpha}_I = 1.54$ respectively. These values confirm conclusions of previous studies, namely that the source is turbulent. Two disk models, the standard prescription of the Shakura-Sunyaev disk and magnetized disks exhibiting MagnetoRotational Instability, were discussed. We found that it is unlikely that they explain this set of observational data.
Intensive monitoring of the strongly variable BL Lac S5 0716+714  [PDF]
K. Otterbein,M. J. Hardcastle,S. J. Wagner,D. M. Worrall
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1016/S0920-5632(98)00252-7
Abstract: The BL Lac object S5 0716+714 was monitored during a multifrequency campaign in 1996. Preliminary analysis of the optical, ROSAT and RXTE data are presented. Strong variability on short time scales was observed. The data suggest an interpretation within a multi-component model.

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