Abstract:
Some exact solutions for the Einstein field equations corresponding to inhomogeneous $G_2$ cosmologies with an exponential-potential scalar field which generalize solutions obtained previously are considered. Several particular cases are studied and the properties related to generalized inflation and asymptotic behaviour of the models are discussed.

Abstract:
The asymptotic behaviour of a family of inhomogeneous scalar field cosmologies with exponential potential is studied. By introducing new variables we can perform an almost complete analysis of the evolution of these cosmologies. Unlike the homogeneous case (Bianchi type solutions), when k^2<2 the models do not isotropize due to the presence of the inhomogeneities

Abstract:
The asymptotic behaviour of a class of inhomogeneous scalar field cosmologies with a Liouville type of potential is studied. We define a set of new variables for which the phase space of the system of Einstein equations is bounded. This allows us to perform a complete analysis of the evolution of these cosmologies. We also discuss the extension of the cosmic no-hair theorem.

Abstract:
Spatially averaged inhomogeneous cosmologies in classical general relativity can be written in the form of effective Friedmann equations with sources that include backreaction terms. In this paper we propose to describe these backreaction terms with the help of a homogeneous scalar field evolving in a potential; we call it the `morphon field'. This new field links classical inhomogeneous cosmologies to scalar field cosmologies, allowing to reinterpret, e.g., quintessence scenarios by routing the physical origin of the scalar field source to inhomogeneities in the Universe. We investigate a one-parameter family of scaling solutions to the backreaction problem. Subcases of these solutions (all without an assumed cosmological constant) include scale-dependent models with Friedmannian kinematics that can mimic the presence of a cosmological constant or a time-dependent cosmological term. We explicitly reconstruct the scalar field potential for the scaling solutions, and discuss those cases that provide a solution to the Dark Energy and coincidence problems. In this approach, Dark Energy emerges from morphon fields, a mechanism that can be understood through the proposed correspondence: the averaged cosmology is characterized by a weak decay (quintessence) or growth (phantom quintessence) of kinematical fluctuations, fed by `curvature energy' that is stored in the averaged 3-Ricci curvature. We find that the late-time trajectories of those models approach attractors that lie in the future of a state that is predicted by observational constraints.

Abstract:
We study a class of inhomogeneous and anisotropic $G_2$ string cosmological models. In the case of separable $G_2$ models we show that the governing equations reduce to a system of ordinary differential equations. We focus on a class of separable $G_2$ M-theory cosmological models, and study their qualitative behaviour (a class of models with time-reversed dynamics is also possible). We find that generically these inhomogeneous M-theory cosmologies evolve from a spatially inhomogeneous and negatively curved model with a non-trivial form field towards spatially flat and spatially homogeneous dilaton-moduli-vacuum solutions with trivial form--fields. The late time behaviour is the same as that of spatially homogeneous models previously studied. However, the inhomogeneities are not dynamically insignificant at early times in these models.

Abstract:
I present here a new algorithm to generate families of inhomogeneous massless scalar field cosmologies. New spacetimes, having a single isometry, are generated by breaking the homogeneity of massless scalar field $G_2$ models along one direction. As an illustration of the technique I construct cosmological models which in their late time limit represent perturbations in the form of gravitational and scalar waves propagating on a non-static inhomogeneous background. Several features of the obtained metrics are discussed, such as their early and late time limits, structure of singularities and physical interpretation.

Abstract:
For general relativistic spacetimes filled with an irrotational perfect fluid a generalized form of Friedmann's equations governing the expansion factor of spatially averaged portions of inhomogeneous cosmologies is derived. The averaging problem for scalar quantities is condensed into the problem of finding an `effective equation of state' including kinematical as well as dynamical `backreaction' terms that measure the departure from a standard FLRW cosmology. Applications of the averaged models are outlined including radiation-dominated and scalar field cosmologies (inflationary and dilaton/string cosmologies). In particular, the averaged equations show that the averaged scalar curvature must generically change in the course of structure formation, that an averaged inhomogeneous radiation cosmos does not follow the evolution of the standard homogeneous-isotropic model, and that an averaged inhomogeneous perfect fluid features kinematical `backreaction' terms that, in some cases, act like a free scalar field source. The free scalar field (dilaton) itself, modelled by a `stiff' fluid, is singled out as a special inhomogeneous case where the averaged equations assume a simple form.

Abstract:
It is shown that the dynamics of cosmologies sourced by a mixture of perfect fluids and self-interacting scalar fields are described by the non-linear, Ermakov-Pinney equation. The general solution of this equation can be expressed in terms of particular solutions to a related, linear differential equation. This characteristic is employed to derive exact cosmologies in the inflationary and quintessential scenarios. The relevance of the Ermakov-Pinney equation to the braneworld scenario is discussed.

Abstract:
In this work we investigate the duality linking standard and tachyon scalar field cosmologies. We determine the transformation between standard and tachyon scalar fields and between their associated potentials, corresponding to the same background evolution. We show that, in general, the duality is broken at a perturbative level, when deviations from a homogeneous and isotropic background are taken into account. However, we find that for slow-rolling fields the duality is still preserved at a linear level. We illustrate our results with specific examples of cosmological relevance, where the correspondence between scalar and tachyon scalar field models can be calculated explicitly.

Abstract:
For general relativistic spacetimes filled with irrotational `dust' a generalized form of Friedmann's equations for an `effective' expansion factor $a_D (t)$ of inhomogeneous cosmologies is derived. Contrary to the standard Friedmann equations, which hold for homogeneous-isotropic cosmologies, the new equations include the `backreaction effect' of inhomogeneities on the average expansion of the model. A universal relation between `backreaction' and average scalar curvature is also given. For cosmologies whose averaged spatial scalar curvature is proportional to $a_D^{-2}$, the expansion law governing a generic domain can be found. However, as the general equations show, `backreaction' acts as to produce average curvature in the course of structure formation, even when starting with space sections that are spatially flat on average.