Abstract:
We consider two distinct coupled cluster (CC) perturbation series that both expand the difference between the energies of the CCSD (CC with single and double excitations) and CCSDT (CC with single, double, and triple excitations) models in orders of the M{\o}ller-Plesset fluctuation potential. We initially introduce the E-CCSD(T-$n$) series, in which the CCSD amplitude equations are satisfied at the expansion point, and compare it to the recently developed CCSD(T-$n$) series [J. Chem. Phys. 140, 064108 (2014)], in which not only the CCSD amplitude, but also the CCSD multiplier equations are satisfied at the expansion point. Both series are term-wise size extensive and formally converge towards the CCSDT target energy. However, the two series are different, and the CCSD(T-$n$) series is found to exhibit a more rapid convergence up through the series, which we trace back to the fact that more information at the expansion point is utilized than for the E-CCSD(T-$n$) series. The present analysis can be generalized to any perturbation expansion representing the difference between a parent CC model and a higher-level target CC model. In general, we demonstrate that, whenever the parent parameters depend upon the perturbation operator, a perturbation expansion of the CC energy (where only parent amplitudes are used) differs from a perturbation expansion of the CC Lagrangian (where both parent amplitudes and parent multipliers are used). For the latter case, the bivariational Lagrangian formulation becomes more than a convenient mathematical tool, since it facilitates a faster convergent perturbation series than the simpler energy expansion.

Abstract:
Starting from a knowledge of certain identities in the Lagrangian description, the diffeomorphism transformations of metric and connection are obtained for both the second order (metric) and the first order (Palatini) formulations of gravity. The transformation laws of the connection and the metric are derived independently in the Palatini formulation in contrast to the metric formulation where the gauge variation of the connection is deduced from the gauge variation of the metric.

Abstract:
In this paper, we use the Lagrangian formalism of classical mechanics and some assumptions to obtain cosmological differential equations analogous to Friedmann and Einstein equations, obtained from the theory of general relativity. This method can be used to a universe constituted of incoherent matter, that is, the cosmologic substratum is comprised of dust.

Abstract:
The Lagrangian point of view is adopted to study turbulent premixed combustion. The evolution of the volume fraction of combustion products is established by the Reynolds transport theorem. It emerges that the burned-mass fraction is led by the turbulent particle motion, by the flame front velocity, and by the mean curvature of the flame front. A physical requirement connecting particle turbulent dispersion and flame front velocity is obtained from equating the expansion rates of the flame front progression and of the unburned particles spread. The resulting description compares favorably with experimental data. In the case of a zero-curvature flame, with a non-Markovian parabolic model for turbulent dispersion, the formulation yields the Zimont equation extended to all elapsed times and fully determined by turbulence characteristics. The exact solution of the extended Zimont equation is calculated and analyzed to bring out different regimes.

Abstract:
We shall here discuss a new spacetime gauge-covariant Lagrangian formulation of General Relativity by means of the Barbero-Immirzi SU(2)-connection on spacetime. To the best of our knowledge the Lagrangian based on SU(2) spacetime fields seems to appear here for the first time.

Abstract:
A Lagrangian formulation with nonlocality is investigated in this paper. The nonlocality of the Lagrangian is introduced by a new nonlocal argument that is defined as a nonlocal residual satisfying the zero mean condition. The nonlocal Euler-Lagrangian equation is derived from the Hamilton's principle. The Noether's theorem is extended to this Lagrangian formulation with nonlocality. With the help of the extended Noether's theorem, the conservation laws relevant to energy, linear momentum, angular momentum and the Eshelby tensor are determined in the nonlocal elasticity associated with the mechanically based constitutive model. The results show that the conservation laws exist only in the form of the integral over the whole domain occupied by body. The localization of the conservation laws is discussed in detail. We demonstrate that not every conservation law corresponds to a local equilibrium equation. Only when the nonlocal residual of conservation current exists, can a conservation law be transformed into a local equilibrium equation by localization.

Abstract:
We present a Lagrangian formulation for the general modified chiral model. We use it to discuss the Hamiltonian formalism for this model and to derive the commutation relations for the chiral field. We look at some explicit examples and show that the Hamiltonian, containing a contribution involving a Wess-Zumino term, is conserved, as required.

Abstract:
It is shown that Connes' generalized gauge field in non-commutative geometry is derived by simply requiring that Dirac lagrangian be invariant under local transformations of the unitary elements of the algebra, which define the gauge group. The spontaneous breakdown of the gauge symmetry is guaranteed provided the chiral fermions exist in more than one generations as first observed by Connes-Lott. It is also pointed out that the most general gauge invariant lagrangian in the bosonic sector has two more parameters than in the original Connes-Lott scheme.

Abstract:
In this work we use the well known formalism developed by Faddeev and Jackiw to introduce noncommutativity within two nonlinear systems, the SU(2) Skyrme and O(3) nonlinear sigma models. The final result is the Lagrangian formulations for the noncommutative versions of both models. The possibility of obtaining different noncommutative versions for these nonlinear systems is demonstrated.

Abstract:
We show how a generic gauge field theory described by a BRST differential can systematically be reformulated as a first order parent system whose spacetime part is determined by the de Rham differential. In the spirit of Vasiliev's unfolded approach, this is done by extending the original space of fields so as to include their derivatives as new independent fields together with associated form fields. Through the inclusion of the antifield dependent part of the BRST differential, the parent formulation can be used both for on and off-shell formulations. For diffeomorphism invariant models, the parent formulation can be reformulated as an AKSZ-type sigma model. Several examples, such as the relativistic particle, parametrized theories, Yang-Mills theory, general relativity and the two dimensional sigma model are worked out in details.