Abstract:
Light sterile neutrinos mixing with the active ones have been recently proposed to solve different anomalies observed in short-baseline oscillation experiments. These neutrinos can also be produced by oscillations of the active neutrinos in the early universe, leaving possible traces on different cosmological observables. Here we perform an updated study of the neutrino kinetic equations in (3+1) and (2+1) oscillation schemes, dynamically evolving primordial asymmetries of active neutrinos and taking into account for the first time CP-violation effects. In the absence of neutrino asymmetries, eV-mass scale sterile neutrinos would be completely thermalized creating a tension with respect to the CMB, LSS and BBN data. In the past literature, active neutrino asymmetries have been invoked as a way to inhibit the sterile neutrino production via the in-medium suppression of the sterile-active mixing angle. However, neutrino asymmetries also permit a resonant sterile neutrino production. We find that if the active species have equal asymmetries L, a value |L|=10^{-3} is required to start suppressing the resonant sterile production, roughly an order of magnitude larger than what previously expected. When active species have opposite asymmetries the sterile abundance is further enhanced, requiring an even larger |L|\simeq 10^{-2} to start suppressing their production. In the latter case, CP-violation (naturally expected) further exacerbates the phenomenon. Some consequences for cosmological observables are briefly discussed: for example, it is likely that moderate suppressions of the sterile species production are associated with significant spectral distortions of the active neutrino species, with potentially interesting phenomenological consequences especially for BBN.

Abstract:
We discuss the dynamical effects of bulk viscosity and particle creation on the early evolution of the Friedmann -Robertson -Walker model in the framework of open thermodynamical systems. We consider bulk viscosity and Particle creation as separate irreversible processes. Exact solutions of the Einstein field equations are obtained by using the "gamma-law" equation of state $p=(\gamma -1)\rho$, where the adiabatic parameter $\gamma$ varies with scale factor of the metric. We consider the cosmological model to study the early phases of the evolution of the universe as it goes from an inflationary phase to a radiation -dominated era in the presence of bulk viscosity and particle creation. Analytical solutions are obtained for particle number density and entropy for all models. It is seen that, by choosing appropriate functions for particle creation rate and bulk viscous coefficient, the models exhibit singular and non-singular beginnings.

Abstract:
The most well tested and successful model of particle physics is the Standard Model (SM). It is shown here that the restoration of the full SM symmetry (as in the Early Universe) leads to the result that the electric charge loses all physical meaning and hence does not exist above this scale, As a direct consequence of this we show that `time', `light' along with its velocity c and therefore the theory of relativity, all lose any physical meaning. The space-time structure as known to us, disappears in this phase transition. Thus it is hypothesized that the Universe came into existence when the SM symmetry $ SU(3)_c \otimes SU(2)_L \otimes U(1)_Y $ was spontaneously broken to $ SU(3)_c \otimes U(1)_{em} $. This does not require any spurious extensions of the SM and in a natural and consistent manner explains the origin of the Universe within the framework of the SM itself. Thus the SM, in addition to all its successes, has within itself, the capablity of giving a consistent decription of the origin of the Universe.

Abstract:
Chameleon gravity is a scalar-tensor theory that includes a non-minimal coupling between the scalar field and the matter fields and yet mimics general relativity in the Solar System. The scalar degree of freedom is hidden in high-density environments because the effective mass of the chameleon scalar depends on the trace of the stress-energy tensor. In the early Universe, when the trace of the matter stress-energy tensor is nearly zero, the chameleon is very light, and Hubble friction prevents it from reaching the minimum of its effective potential. Whenever a particle species becomes non-relativistic, however, the trace of the stress-energy tensor is temporarily nonzero, and the chameleon begins to roll. We show that these "kicks" to the chameleon field have catastrophic consequences for chameleon gravity. The velocity imparted to the chameleon by the kick is sufficiently large that the chameleon's mass changes rapidly as it slides past its potential minimum. This nonadiabatic evolution shatters the chameleon field by generating extremely high-energy perturbations through quantum particle production. If the chameleon's coupling to matter is slightly stronger than gravitational, the excited modes have trans-Planckian momenta. The production of modes with momenta exceeding 1e7 GeV can only be avoided for small couplings and finely tuned initial conditions. These quantum effects also significantly alter the background evolution of the chameleon field, and we develop new analytic and numerical techniques to treat quantum particle production in the regime of strong dissipation. This analysis demonstrates that chameleon gravity cannot be treated as a classical field theory at the time of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and casts doubt on chameleon gravity's viability as an alternative to general relativity.

Abstract:
The quantum gravitational scale of inflation is calculated by finding a sharp probability peak in the distribution function of chaotic inflationary cosmologies driven by a scalar field with large negative constant $\xi$ of nonminimal interaction. In the case of the no-boundary state of the universe this peak corresponds to the eternal inflation, while for the tunnelling quantum state it generates a standard inflationary scenario. The sub-Planckian parameters of this peak (the mean value of the corresponding Hubble constant ${\mbox{\boldmath $H$}}\simeq 10^{-5}m_P$, its quantum width $\Delta{\mbox{\boldmath $H$}}/{\mbox{\boldmath $H$}}\simeq 10^{-5}$ and the number of inflationary e-foldings ${\mbox{\boldmath $N$}}\simeq 60$) are found to be in good correspondence with the observational status of inflation theory, provided the coupling constants of the theory are constrained by a condition which is likely to be enforced by the (quasi) supersymmetric nature of the sub-Planckian particle physics model.

Abstract:
We perform a study of the flavour evolution in the early universe of a multi-flavour active-sterile neutrino system with parameters inspired by the short-baseline neutrino anomalies. In a neutrino-symmetric bath a "thermal" population of the sterile state would quickly grow, but in the presence of primordial neutrino asymmetries a self-suppression as well as a resonant sterile neutrino production can take place, depending on temperature and chosen parameters. In order to characterize these effects, we go beyond the usual average momentum and single mixing approximations and consider a multi-momentum and multi-flavour treatment of the kinetic equations. We find that the enhancement obtained in this case with respect to the average momentum approximation is significant, up to \sim 20 % of a degree of freedom. Such detailed and computationally demanding treatment further raises the asymmetry values required to significantly suppress the sterile neutrino production, up to large and preferentially net asymmetries |L_{\nu}| > O(10^{-2}). For such asymmetries, however, the active-sterile flavour conversions happen so late that significant distortions are produced in the electron (anti)neutrino spectra. The larger |L_{\nu}|, the more the impact of these distortions takes over as dominant cosmological effect, notably increasing the 4 He abundance in primordial nucleosynthesis (BBN). The standard expression of the primordial yields in terms of the effective number of neutrinos and asymmetries is also greatly altered. We numerically estimate the magnitude of such effects for a few representative cases and comment on possible implications for forthcoming cosmological measurements.

Abstract:
We perform a study of the flavour evolution in the early universe of a multi-flavour active-sterile neutrino system with parameters inspired by the short-baseline neutrino anomalies. In a neutrino-symmetric bath a "thermal" population of the sterile state would quickly grow, but in the presence of primordial neutrino asymmetries a self-suppression as well as a resonant sterile neutrino production can take place, depending on temperature and chosen parameters. In order to characterize these effects, we go beyond the usual average momentum and single mixing approximations and consider a multi-momentum and multi-flavour treatment of the kinetic equations. We find that the enhancement obtained in this case with respect to the average momentum approximation is significant, up to \sim 20 % of a degree of freedom. Such detailed and computationally demanding treatment further raises the asymmetry values required to significantly suppress the sterile neutrino production, up to large and preferentially net asymmetries |L_{\nu}| > O(10^{-2}). For such asymmetries, however, the active-sterile flavour conversions happen so late that significant distortions are produced in the electron (anti)neutrino spectra. The larger |L_{\nu}|, the more the impact of these distortions takes over as dominant cosmological effect, notably increasing the 4 He abundance in primordial nucleosynthesis (BBN). The standard expression of the primordial yields in terms of the effective number of neutrinos and asymmetries is also greatly altered. We numerically estimate the magnitude of such effects for a few representative cases and comment on possible implications for forthcoming cosmological measurements.

Abstract:
Ordinary-sterile neutrino oscillations can generate a significant lepton number asymmetry in the early Universe. We study this phenomenon in detail. We show that the dynamics of ordinary-sterile neutrino oscillations in the early Universe can be approximately described by a single integro-differential equation which we derive from both the density matrix and Hamiltonian formalisms. This equation reduces to a relatively simple ordinary first order differential equation if the system is sufficiently smooth (static limit). We study the conditions for which the static limit is an acceptable approximation. We also study the effect of the thermal distribution of neutrino momenta on the generation of lepton number. We apply these results to show that it is possible to evade (by many orders of magnitude) the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) bounds on the mixing parameters, $\delta m^2$ and $\sin^2 2\theta_0$, describing ordinary-sterile neutrino oscillations. We show that the large angle or maximal vacuum oscillation solution to the solar neutrino problem does not significantly modify BBN for most of the parameter space of interest, provided that the tau and/or mu neutrinos have masses greater than about 1 eV. We also show that the large angle or maximal ordinary-sterile neutrino oscillation solution to the atmospheric neutrino anomaly does not significantly modify BBN for a range of parameters.

Abstract:
This paper is devoted to the investigation of connection between two apparent asymmetries of the nature --- time-asymmetry and Baryon Asymmetry of the Universe (BAU). The brief review of this subjects is given. We consider the particle behavior in curved space-time and the possibility of $T$- and $CPT$-violation by the universe expansion. If these symmetries are violated we can dispens with the nonequilibrium condition which is usualy considered as the one of necessary ingredients for BAU-generation. Such mechanism of GUT-scale baryogenesis can provide the observed value of baryon asymmetry. We show this on the example of minimal $SU(5)$ model which usually fails to explain the observed BAU withought taking into account gravitational effects. Predominance of matter over antimatter and the cosmological arrow of time (the time-direction in which the Universe expands) seem to be connected facts and, possibly, BAU is the one of observable facts of $CPT$-violation in nature.

Abstract:
I review two different connections between particle theory and early-Universe cosmology: (1) Cosmic-microwave-background (CMB) tests of inflation and (2) particle dark matter. The inflationary predictions of a flat Universe and a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of primordial density perturbations will be tested precisely with forthcoming maps of the CMB temperature. A stochastic gravitational-wave background may be probed with a map of the CMB polarization. I also discuss some other uses of CMB maps. Particle theory has produced two very well-motivated candidates for the dark matter in the Universe: an axion and a supersymmetric particle. In both cases, there are a variety of experiments afoot to detect these particles. I review the properties of these dark-matter candidates and these detection techniques. Much of the material here has appeared before in astro-ph/9712215 and hep-ph/9710467, but the article here is updated and also expanded considerably.