Abstract:
We consider a quantum impurity model in which a bosonic impurity level is coupled to a non-interacting bosonic bath, with the bosons at the impurity site subject to a local Coulomb repulsion U. Numerical renormalization group calculations for this bosonic single-impurity Anderson model reveal a zero-temperature phase diagram where Mott phases with reduced charge fluctuations are separated from a Bose-Einstein condensed phase by lines of quantum critical points. We discuss possible realizations of this model, such as atomic quantum dots in optical lattices. Furthermore, the bosonic single-impurity Anderson model appears as an effective impurity model in a dynamical mean-field theory of the Bose-Hubbard model.

Abstract:
Superconducting quantum phase transitions tuned by disorder (d), paramagnetic impurity (MI) and perpendicular magnetic field (B) have been studied in homogeneously disordered ultrathin a-Pb films. The MI-tuned transition is characterized by progressive suppression of the critical temperature to zero and a continuous transition to a weakly insulating normal state with increasing MI density. In all important aspects, the d-tuned transition closely resembles the MI-tuned transition and both appear to be fermionic in nature. The B-tuned transition is qualitatively different and probably bosonic. In the critical region it exhibits transport behavior that suggests a B-induced mesoscale phase separation and presence of Cooper pairing in the insulating state.

Abstract:
We theoretically study bound states generated by magnetic impurities within conventional $s$-wave superconductors, both analytically and numerically. In determining the effect of the hybridization of two such bound states on the energy spectrum as a function of magnetic exchange coupling, relative angle of magnetization, and distance between impurities, we find that quantum phase transitions can be modulated by each of these parameters. Accompanying such transitions, there is a change in the preferred spin configuration of the impurities. Although the interaction between the impurity spins is overwhelmingly dominated by the quasiparticle contribution, the ground state of the system is determined by the bound state energies. Self-consistently calculating the superconducting order parameter, we find a discontinuity when the system undergoes a quantum phase transition as indicated by the bound state energies.

Abstract:
We study a pseudogap Anderson-Holstein model of a magnetic impurity level that hybridizes with a conduction band whose density of states vanishes in power-law fashion at the Fermi energy, and couples, via its charge, to a nondispersive bosonic mode (e.g., an optical phonon). The model, which we treat using poor-man's scaling and the numerical renormalization group, exhibits quantum phase transitions of different types depending on the strength of the impurity-boson coupling. For weak impurity-boson coupling, the suppression of the density of states near the Fermi energy leads to quantum phase transitions between strong-coupling (Kondo) and local-moment phases. For sufficiently strong impurity-boson coupling, however, the bare repulsion between a pair of electrons in the impurity level becomes an effective attraction, leading to quantum phase transitions between strong-coupling (charge-Kondo) and local-charge phases. Even though the Hamiltonian exhibits different symmetries in the spin and charge sectors, the thermodynamic properties near the two types of quantum phase transition are closely related under spin-charge interchange. Moreover, the critical responses to a local magnetic field (for small impurity-boson coupling) and to an electric potential (for large impurity-boson coupling) are characterized by the same exponents, whose values place these quantum critical points in the universality class of the pseudogap Anderson model. One specific case of the pseudogap Anderson-Holstein model may be realized in a double-quantum-dot device, where the quantum phase transitions manifest themselves in the finite-temperature linear electrical conductance.

Abstract:
By applying a magnetic field whose Zeeman energy exceeds the Kondo energy by an order of magnitude the ground state of the Friedel-Anderson impurity is a magnetic state. In recent years the author introduced the Friedel Artificially Inserted Resonance (FAIR) method to investigate impurity properties. Within this FAIR approach the magnetic ground state is derived. Its full excitation spectrum and the composition of the excitations is calculated and numerically evaluated. From the excitation spectrum the electron density of states is calculated. Majority and minority d-resonances are obtained. The width of the resonances is about twice as wide as the mean field theory predicts. This broadening is due to the fact that any change of the occupation of the d-state in one spin band changes the eigenstates in the opposite spin band and causes transitions in both spin bands. This broadening reduces the height of the resonance curve and therefore the density of states by a factor of two. This yields an intuitive understanding for a previous result of the FAIR approach that the critical value of the Coulomb interaction for the formation of a magnetic moment is twice as large as the mean field theory predicts.

Abstract:
We review recent work on continuous quantum phase transitions in impurity models, both with fermionic and bosonic baths - these transitions are interesting realizations of boundary critical phenomena at zero temperature. The models with fermion bath are generalizations of the standard Kondo model, with the common feature that Kondo screening of the localized spin can be suppressed due to competing processes. The models with boson bath are related to the spin-boson model of dissipative two-level systems, where the interplay between tunneling and friction results in multiple phases. The competition inherent to all models can generate unstable fixed points associated with quantum phase transitions, where the impurity properties undergo qualitative changes. Interestingly, certain impurity transitions feature both lower-critical and upper-critical "dimensions" and allow for epsilon-type expansions. We present results for a number of observables, obtained by both analytical and numerical renormalization group techniques, and make connections to experiments.

Abstract:
We study the impurity-induced phase transitions in a quasi-one-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnet doped with magnetic spin-1/2 impurities and non-magnetic ones. The impurity-induced transition temperature determined by the quantum Monte Carlo method with the continuous-time loop algorithm is monotonically increasing as a function of the magnitude of the impurity spin. To these results, we give discussions based on the valence-bond solid-like picture for the pure system and the inspection of the local magnetic structure around the impurities.

Abstract:
We determine the phase diagram of an Anderson impurity in contact with superconducting and normal-state leads for arbitrary ratio of the gap $\Delta$ to the Kondo temperature $T_K$. We observe a considerable effect of even very weak coupling to the normal lead that is usually considered as a non-perturbing tunneling probe. The numerical renormalization group results are analyzed in the context of relevant experimental scenarios such as parity crossing (doublet-singlet) quantum phase transitions induced by a gap reduction as well as novel Kondo features induced by the normal lead. We point out the important role of finite temperatures and magnetic fields. Overall, we find a very rich behavior of spectral functions with zero-bias anomalies which can emerge irrespective of whether the ground state is a doublet or a singlet. Our findings are pertinent to the tunnelling-spectroscopy experiments aiming at detecting Majorana modes in nanowires.

Abstract:
We investigate the reconstruction of a Fermi surface, which is called a Lifshitz transition, in magnetically ordered phases of the periodic Anderson model on a square lattice with a finite Coulomb interaction between f electrons. We apply the variational Monte Carlo method to the model by using the Gutzwiller wavefunctions for the paramagnetic, antiferromagnetic, ferromagnetic, and charge-density-wave states. We find that an antiferromagnetic phase is realized around half-filling and a ferromagnetic phase is realized when the system is far away from half-filling. In both magnetic phases, Lifshitz transitions take place. By analyzing the electronic states, we conclude that the Lifshitz transitions to large ordered-moment states can be regarded as itinerant-localized transitions of the f electrons.

Abstract:
We have investigated effects of an external magnetic field in the impurity Anderson model with a finite on-site Coulomb repulsion $U$. Large $N_f$ expansion is employed in the slave boson representation, by taking into account $f^0$, $f^1$, and $f^2$ subspaces. To evaluate the vertex function for the ``empty state boson" self-energy, we have devised two approximations which reduce much computational efforts without losing general features of the model. It is found that the Kondo temperature is reduced by the presence of a magnetic field, and that at low field and at low temperature, the field dependence of both the Kondo temperature and the impurity magnetization exhibits a scaling behavior with high accuracy. Further, some interesting features are found in the field dependence of the impurity magnetization at finite temperature, the physical implications of which are discussed in terms of the renormalized Kondo temperature.