Abstract:
We suggest that breaking of SU(3) flavor symmetry mainly resides in the baryon wave--functions while the charge operators have no (or only small) explicit symmetry breaking components. We utilize the collective coordinate approach to chiral soliton models to support this picture. In particular we compute the $g_A/g_V$ ratios for hyperon beta--decay and the strangeness contribution to the nucleon axial current matrix elements and analyze their variation with increasing flavor symmetry breaking.

Abstract:
In this talk we review the consequences of the chiral SU(3) symmetry for strangeness propagation in nuclear matter. Objects of crucial importance are the meson-baryon scattering amplitudes obtained within the chiral coupled-channel effective field theory. Results for antikaon and hyperon-resonance spectral functions in cold nuclear matter are presented and discussed. The importance of the Sigma(1385) resonance for the subthreshold antikaon production in heavy-ion reaction at SIS is pointed out. The in-medium properties of the latter together with an antikaon spectral function based on chiral SU(3) dynamics suggest a significant enhancement of the pi \Lambda -> bar K N reaction in nuclear matter.

Abstract:
In this talk we review the important role played by chiral SU(3) symmetry in hadron physics. Exciting new results on the formation of baryon resonances as implied by chiral coupled-channel dynamics are presented and discussed. The results are the consequence of progress made in formulating a consistent effective field theory for the meson-baryon scattering processes in the resonance region. Strangeness channels are found to play a decisive role in the formation of resonances. As a further application of chiral coupled-channel dynamics the properties of antikaons and hyperon resonances in cold nuclear matter are reviewed.

Abstract:
We review the important role played by the chiral SU(3) symmetry in predicting the properties of antikaons and hyperon resonances in cold nuclear matter. Objects of crucial importance are the meson-baryon scattering amplitudes obtained within the chiral coupled-channel effective field theory. The formation of baryon resonances as implied by chiral coupled-channel dynamics is discussed. Results for antikaon and hyperon-resonance spectral functions are presented for isospin symmetric and asymmetric matter.

Abstract:
Chiral symmetry is known to be decisive for an understanding of the low energy sector of strong interactions. It is thus important for a model of relativistic heavy ion collisions to incorporate the dynamical breaking and restoration of chiral symmetry. Thus we study an expansion scenario for a quark-meson plasma using the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model in its three flavor version. The equations of motion for light and strange quarks as well as for pions, kaons and etas are solved using a QMD type algorithm, which is based on a parametrization of the Wigner function. The scattering processes incorporated into this calculation are of the types qq <--> qq, q\bar q <--> q\bar q, q\bar q <--> MM and M <--> q\bar q.

Abstract:
Chiral Symmetry Breaking (CSB) is derived in QCD starting from the QCD Lagrangian and using Field Correlators Method (FCM). The kernel in the resulting equations responsible for CSB is directly connected to confinement, and therefore both phenomena occur and vanish together as supported by lattice data. Chiral Lagrangian and quark-meson Lagrangian are derived with explicit coefficients and compared to standard expressions. Spectrum of Nambu-Goldstone mesons and their radial excitations is calculated in good agreement with experiment.

Abstract:
To understand the relation between the chiral symmetry breaking and monopoles, the chiral condensate which is the order parameter of the chiral symmetry breaking is calculated in the $\overline{\mbox{MS}}$ scheme at 2 [GeV]. First, we add one pair of monopoles, varying the monopole charges $m_{c}$ from zero to four, to SU(3) quenched configurations by a monopole creation operator. The low-lying eigenvalues of the Overlap Dirac operator are computed from the gauge links of the normal configurations and the configurations with additional monopoles. Next, we compare the distributions of the nearest-neighbor spacing of the low-lying eigenvalues with the prediction of the random matrix theory. The low-lying eigenvalues not depending on the scale parameter $\Sigma$ are compared to the prediction of the random matrix theory. The results show the consistency with the random matrix theory. Thus, the additional monopoles do not affect the low-lying eigenvalues. Moreover, we discover that the additional monopoles increase the scale parameter $\Sigma$. We then evaluate the chiral condensate in the $\overline{\mbox{MS}}$ scheme at 2 [GeV] from the scale parameter $\Sigma$ and the renormalization constant $Z_{S}$. The final results clearly show that the chiral condensate linearly decreases by increasing the monopole charges.

Abstract:
This is a review of the QCD instanton vacuum. After introducing instantons and their physical meaning, I show that the number of instantons in the vacuum fluctuates in accordance with the QCD trace anomaly. The main properties of the instanton ensemble are given. Chiral symmetry breaking by instantons is explained in three different though mathematically equivalent ways. In particular, a derivation of the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio-type model from instantons is presented, and the effective chiral lagrangian to which QCD is reduced at low momenta, is given. I end up by discussing possible confinement mechanisms.

Abstract:
The question of whether the Coulomb interaction is strong enough to break the sublattice symmetry of un-doped graphene is discussed. We formulate a strong coupling expansion where the ground state of the Coulomb Hamiltonian is found exactly and the kinetic hopping Hamiltonian is treated as a perturbation. We argue that many of the properties of the resulting system would be shared by graphene with a Hubbard model interaction. In particular, the best candidate sublattice symmetry breaking ground state is an antiferromagnetic Mott insulator. We discuss the results of some numerical simulations which indicate that the Coulomb interaction is indeed subcritical. We also point out the curious fact that, if the electron did not have spin degeneracy, the tendency to break chiral symmetry would be much greater and even relatively weak Coulomb interactions would likely gap the spectrum.

Abstract:
The chiral symmetry breaking properties of the Tayler instability are discussed. Effective amplitude equations are determined in one case. This model has three free parameters that are determined numerically. Comparison with chiral symmetry breaking in biochemistry is made.