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A Complete Spectroscopic Survey of the Milky Way Satellite Segue 1: The Darkest Galaxy  [PDF]
Joshua D. Simon,Marla Geha,Quinn E. Minor,Gregory D. Martinez,Evan N. Kirby,James S. Bullock,Manoj Kaplinghat,Louis E. Strigari,Beth Willman,Philip I. Choi,Erik J. Tollerud,Joe Wolf
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/733/1/46
Abstract: We present the results of a comprehensive Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopic survey of the ultra-faint Milky Way satellite galaxy Segue 1. We have obtained velocity measurements for 98.2% of the stars within 67 pc (10 arcmin, or 2.3 half-light radii) of the center of Segue 1 that have colors and magnitudes consistent with membership, down to a magnitude limit of r=21.7. Based on photometric, kinematic, and metallicity information, we identify 71 stars as probable Segue 1 members, including some as far out as 87 pc. After correcting for the influence of binary stars using repeated velocity measurements, we determine a velocity dispersion of 3.7^{+1.4}_{-1.1} km/s, with a corresponding mass within the half-light radius of 5.8^{+8.2}_{-3.1} x 10^5 Msun. The stellar kinematics of Segue 1 require very high mass-to-light ratios unless the system is far from dynamical equilibrium, even if the period distribution of unresolved binary stars is skewed toward implausibly short periods. With a total luminosity less than that of a single bright red giant and a V-band mass-to-light ratio of 3400 Msun/Lsun, Segue 1 is the darkest galaxy currently known. We critically re-examine recent claims that Segue 1 is a tidally disrupting star cluster and that kinematic samples are contaminated by the Sagittarius stream. The extremely low metallicities ([Fe/H] < -3) of two Segue 1 stars and the large metallicity spread among the members demonstrate conclusively that Segue 1 is a dwarf galaxy, and we find no evidence in favor of tidal effects. We also show that contamination by the Sagittarius stream has been overestimated. Segue 1 has the highest measured dark matter density of any known galaxy and will therefore be a prime testing ground for dark matter physics and galaxy formation on small scales.
The Effect of Sterile States on the Magnetic Moments of Neutrinos  [PDF]
A. B. Balantekin,N. Vassh
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1063/1.4883424
Abstract: We briefly review recent work exploring the effect of light sterile neutrino states on the neutrino magnetic moment as explored by the reactor and solar neutrino experiments.
Sterile neutrinos and supernova nucleosynthesis  [PDF]
D. O. Caldwell,G. M. Fuller,Y. -Z. Qian
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.61.123005
Abstract: A light sterile neutrino species has been introduced to explain simultaneously the solar and atmospheric neutrino puzzles and the results of the LSND experiment, while providing for a hot component of dark matter. Employing this scheme of neutrino masses and mixings, we show how matter-enhanced active-sterile neutrino transformation followed by active-active neutrino transformation can solve robustly the neutron deficit problem encountered by models of r-process nucleosynthesis associated with neutrino-heated supernova ejecta.
Axino as a sterile neutrino  [PDF]
Kiwoon Choi
Physics , 2001,
Abstract: We present a supersymmetric axion model in which the fermionic superpartner of axion, i.e. the axino, corresponds to a sterile neutrino which would accommodate the LSND data with atmospheric and solar neutrino oscillations.
What are sterile neutrinos good for?  [PDF]
Mitesh Patel,George M. Fuller
Physics , 2000,
Abstract: Taken at face value, current experimental data indicate the existence of a new particle, the sterile neutrino, which must be a singlet under the Standard Model gauge group. Although they are not detectable through traditional means, such particles have interesting observable consequences for particle astrophysics and cosmology. Here we examine these implications and discuss, in particular, sterile neutrino dark matter and the relationship between matter-enhanced active-sterile neutrino transformation and the synthesis of heavy elements in supernovae.
Sterile neutrinos in the light of IceCube  [PDF]
Manfred Lindner,Werner Rodejohann,Xun-Jie Xu
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: We determine constraints on parameters of a single eV-scale light neutrino using IceCube-59 data. Particular emphasis is put on the question whether such an analysis can rule out sterile neutrino hints. While important complementary information is provided, the different dependence on the various sterile neutrino mixing angles makes it currently not possible to fully exclude short baseline appearance results or sterile neutrinos in general.
Sterile neutrinos
Kusenko, Alexander
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2007, DOI: 10.1063/1.2751940
Abstract: Neutrino masses are usually described by adding to the Standard Model some SU(2)-singlet fermions that have the Yukawa couplings, as well as some Majorana mass terms. The number of such fields and the scales of their Majorana masses are not known. Several independent observations point to the possibility that some of these singlets may have masses well below the electroweak scale. A sterile neutrino with mass of a few keV can account for cosmological dark matter. The same particle would be emitted anisotropically from a cooling neutron star born in a supernova explosion. This anisotropy can be large enough to explain the observed velocities of pulsars. A lighter sterile neutrino, with mass of the order of eV, is implied by the LSND results; it can have profound implications for cosmology. We review the physics of sterile neutrinos and the roles they may play in astrophysics and cosmology.
Sterile Neutrinos  [PDF]
R. N. Mohapatra
Physics , 1999,
Abstract: A simultaneous understanding of the results of the LSND experiment indicating $\nu_{\mu}-\nu_e$ oscillation together with other evidences for neutrino oscillations from solar and atmospheric neutrino data seems to require the existence of at least one sterile neutrino. One can also give other plausible astrophysical arguments that seem to require light sterile neutrinos. A major theoretical challenge posed by their existence is to understand why they are so light. A scenario is presented where one assumes a parity doubling of the standard model with identical matter and gauge content. The neutrinos of the parity doubled (mirror) sector are light for the same reason that the known neutrinos are light and since they do not couple to the known W and Z bosons, they can be identified with the sterile neutrinos. Some of the implications and possible tests of this hypothesis are mentioned.
Atmospheric Sterile Neutrinos  [PDF]
Takehiko Asaka,Atsushi Watanabe
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1007/JHEP07(2012)112
Abstract: We study production of sterile neutrinos in the atmosphere and their detection at Super-Kamiokande. A sterile neutrino in the mass range $1\,{\rm MeV} \lesssim M_N \lesssim 105\,{\rm MeV}$ is produced by muon or pion decay, and decays to an electron-positron pair and an active neutrino. Such a decay of the sterile neutrino leaves two electron-like Cherenkov rings in the detector. We estimate the sterile neutrino flux from the well-established active neutrino fluxes and study the number of the decay events in the detector. The upper bounds for the active-sterile mixings are obtained by comparing the $2e$-like events from the sterile neutrino decays and the observed data by Super-Kamiokande. The upper bound for the muon type mixing $\Theta_\mu$ is found to be $|\Theta_\mu|^2 \lesssim 5 \times 10^{-5}$ for $20 \,{\rm MeV} \lesssim M_N \lesssim 80\,{\rm MeV}$, which is significantly loosened compared to the previous estimation. We demonstrate that the opening angle and the total energy of the rings may serve as diagnostic tools to discover the sterile neutrinos in further data accumulation and future upgraded facilities. The directional asymmetry of the events is a sensitive measure of the diminishment of the sterile neutrino flux due to the decays on the way to the detector.
The Origin of Segue 1  [PDF]
M. Niederste-Ostholt,V. Belokurov,N. W. Evans,G. Gilmore,R. F. G. Wyse,J. E. Norris
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.15287.x
Abstract: We apply the optimal filter technique to Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometry around Segue 1 and find that the outer parts of the cluster are distorted. There is strong evidence for ~ 1 degree elongations of extra-tidal stars, extending both eastwards and southwestwards of the cluster. The extensions have similar differential Hess diagrams to Segue 1. A Kolmogorov-Smirnov test suggests a high probability that both come from the same parent distribution. The location of Segue 1 is close to crossings of the tidal wraps of the Sagittarius stream. By extracting blue horizontal branch stars from Sloan's spectral database, two kinematic features are isolated and identified with different wraps of the Sagittarius stream. We show that Segue 1 is moving with a velocity that is close to one of the wraps. At this location, we estimate that there are enough Sagittarius stars, indistinguishable from Segue 1 stars, to inflate the velocity dispersion and hence the mass-to-light ratio. All the available evidence is consistent with the interpretation that Segue 1 is a star cluster, originally from the Sagittarius galaxy, and now dissolving in the Milky Way.
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