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Characterization of positronium properties in doped liquid scintillators  [PDF]
G. Consolati,D. Franco,S. Hans,C. Jollet,A. Meregaglia,S. Perasso,A. Tonazzo,M. Yeh
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevC.88.065502
Abstract: Ortho-positronium (o-Ps) formation and decay can replace the annihilation process, when positron interacts in liquid scintillator media. The delay induced by the positronium decay represents either a potential signature for anti-neutrino detection, via inverse beta decay, or to identify and suppress positron background, as recently demonstrated by the Borexino experiment. The formation probability and decay time of o-Ps depend strongly on the surrounding material. In this paper, we characterize the o-Ps properties in liquid scintillators as function of concentrations of gadolinium, lithium, neodymium, and tellurium, dopers used by present and future neutrino experiments. In particular, gadolinium and lithium are high neutron cross section isotopes, widely used in reactor anti-neutrino experiments, while neodymium and tellurium are double beta decay emitters, employed to investigates the Majorana neutrino nature. Future neutrino experiments may profit from the performed measurements to tune the preparation of the scintillator in order to maximize the o-Ps signature, and therefore the discrimination power.
Positronium signature in organic liquid scintillators for neutrino experiments  [PDF]
D. Franco,G. Consolati,D. Trezzi
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevC.83.015504
Abstract: Electron anti-neutrinos are commonly detected in liquid scintillator experiments via inverse beta decay, by looking at the coincidence between the reaction products, neutron and positron. Prior to positron annihilation, an electron-positron pair may form an orthopositronium (o-Ps) state, with a mean life of a few ns. Even if the o-Ps decay is speeded up by spin flip or pick off effects, it may introduce distortions in the photon emission time distribution, crucial for position reconstruction and pulse shape discrimination algorithms in anti-neutrino experiments. Reversing the problem, the o-Ps induced time distortion represents a new signature for tagging anti-neutrinos in liquid scintillator. In this paper, we report the results of measurements of the o-Ps formation probability and lifetime, for the most used solvents for organic liquid scintillators in neutrino physics (pseudocumene, linear alkyl benzene, phenylxylylethane, and dodecane). We characterize also a mixture of pseudocumene +1.5 g/l of 2,5-diphenyloxazole, a fluor acting as wavelength shifter. In the second part of the paper, we demonstrate that the o-Ps induced distortion of the scintillation photon emission time distributions represent an optimal signature for tagging positrons on an event by event basis, potentially enhancing the anti-neutrino detection.
Measurement of the ortho-positronium confinement energy in mesoporous thin films  [PDF]
Paolo Crivelli,Ulisse Gendotti,André Rubbia,Laszlo Liszkay,Patrice Perez,Catherine Corbel
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.81.052703
Abstract: In this paper, we present measurements of the ortho-positronium emission energy in vacuum from mesoporous films using the time of flight technique. We show evidence of quantum mechanical confinement in the mesopores that defines the minimal energy of the emitted Ps. Two samples with different effective pore sizes, measured with positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy, are compared for the data collected in the temperature range 50-400 K. The sample with smaller pore size exhibits a higher minimal energy ($73\pm$5 meV), compared to the sample with bigger pores ($48\pm$5 meV), due to the stronger confinement. The dependence of the emission energy with the temperature of the target is modeled as ortho-positronium being confined in rectangular boxes in thermodynamic equilibrium with the sample. We also measured that the yield of positronium emitted in vacuum is not affected by the temperature of the target.
Searches for discrete symmetries violation in ortho-positronium decay using the J-PET detector  [PDF]
D. Kamińska,T. Bednarski,P. Bia?as,E. Czerwiński,A. Gajos,M. Gorgol,B. Jasińska,?. Kap?on,G. Korcyl,P. Kowalski,T. Kozik,W. Krzemień,E. Kubicz,Sz. Nied?wiecki,M. Pa?ka,L. Raczyński,Z. Rudy,O. Rundel,N. G. Sharma,M. Silarski,A. S?omski,A. Strzelecki,A. Wieczorek,W. Wi?licki,M. Zieliński,B. Zgardzińska,P. Moskal
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: In this paper we present prospects for using the J-PET detector to search for discrete symmetries violations in a purely leptonic system of the positronium atom. We discuss tests of CP and CPT symmetries by means of ortho-positronium decays into three photons. No zero expectation values for chosen correlations between ortho-positronium spin and momentum vectors of photons would imply the existence of physics phenomena beyond the Standard Model. Previous measurements resulted in violation amplitude parameters for CP and CPT symmetries consistent with zero, with an uncertainty of about 10-3. The J-PET detector allows to determine those values with better precision thanks to a unique time and angular esolution combined with a high geometrical acceptance. Achieving the aforementioned is possible due to application of polymer scintillators instead of crystals as detectors of annihilation quanta.
Can the mirror world explain the ortho-positronium lifetime puzzle?  [PDF]
R. Foot,S. N. Gninenko
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1016/S0370-2693(00)00357-9
Abstract: We suggest that the discrepant lifetime measurements of ortho-positronium can be explained by ortho-positronium oscillations into mirror ortho-positronium. This explanation can be tested in future vacuum experiments.
Ortho-positronium observation in the Double Chooz Experiment  [PDF]
Y. Abe,J. C. dos Anjos,J. C. Barriere,E. Baussan,I. Bekman,M. Bergevin,T. J. C. Bezerra,L. Bezrukov,E. Blucher,C. Buck,J. Busenitz,A. Cabrera,E. Caden,L. Camilleri,R. Carr,M. Cerrada,P. -J. Chang,E. Chauveau,P. Chimenti,A. P. Collin,E. Conover,J. M. Conrad,J. I. Crespo-Anadon,K. Crum,A. S. Cucoanes,E. Damon,J. V. Dawson,J. Dhooghe,D. Dietrich,Z. Djurcic,M. Dracos,M. Elnimr,A. Etenko,M. Fallot,F. von Feilitzsch,J. Felde,S. M. Fernandes,V. Fischer,D. Franco,M. Franke,H. Furuta,I. Gil-Botella,L. Giot,M. Goger-Neff,L. F. G. Gonzalez,L. Goodenough,M. C. Goodman,C. Grant,N. Haag,T. Hara,J. Haser,M. Hofmann,G. A. Horton-Smith,A. Hourlier,M. Ishitsuka,J. Jochum,C. Jollet,F. Kaether,L. N. Kalousis,Y. Kamyshkov,D. M. Kaplan,T. Kawasaki,E. Kemp,H. de Kerret,D. Kryn,M. Kuze,T. Lachenmaier,C. E. Lane,T. Lasserre,A. Letourneau,D. Lhuillier,H. P. Lima Jr,M. Lindner,J. M. Lopez-Castano,J. M. LoSecco,B. Lubsandorzhiev,S. Lucht,J. Maeda,C. Mariani,J. Maricic,J. Martino,T. Matsubara,G. Mention,A. Meregaglia,T. Miletic,R. Milincic,A. Minotti,Y. Nagasaka,Y. Nikitenko,P. Novella,L. Oberauer,M. Obolensky,A. Onillon,A. Osborn,C. Palomares,I. M. Pepe,S. Perasso,P. Pfahler,A. Porta,G. Pronost,J. Reichenbacher,B. Reinhold,M. Rohling,R. Roncin,S. Roth,B. Rybolt,Y. Sakamoto,R. Santorelli,A. C. Schilithz,S. Schonert,S. Schoppmann,M. H. Shaevitz,R. Sharankova,S. Shimojima,D. Shrestha,V. Sibille,V. Sinev,M. Skorokhvatov,E. Smith,J. Spitz,A. Stahl,I. Stancu,L. F. F. Stokes,M. Strait,A. Stuken,F. Suekane
Statistics , 2014, DOI: 10.1007/JHEP10(2014)032
Abstract: The Double Chooz experiment measures the neutrino mixing angle $\theta_{13}$ by detecting reactor $\bar{\nu}_e$ via inverse beta decay. The positron-neutron space and time coincidence allows for a sizable background rejection, nonetheless liquid scintillator detectors would profit from a positron/electron discrimination, if feasible in large detector, to suppress the remaining background. Standard particle identification, based on particle dependent time profile of photon emission in liquid scintillator, can not be used given the identical mass of the two particles. However, the positron annihilation is sometimes delayed by the ortho-positronium (o-Ps) metastable state formation, which induces a pulse shape distortion that could be used for positron identification. In this paper we report on the first observation of positronium formation in a large liquid scintillator detector based on pulse shape analysis of single events. The o-Ps formation fraction and its lifetime were measured, finding the values of 44$\%$ $\pm$ 12$\%$ (sys.) $\pm$ 5$\%$ (stat.) and $3.68$ns $\pm$ 0.17ns (sys.) $\pm$ 0.15ns (stat.) respectively, in agreement with the results obtained with a dedicated positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy setup.
A new anti-neutrino detection technique based on positronium tagging with plastic scintillators  [PDF]
G. Consolati,D. Franco,C. Jollet,A. Meregaglia,A. Minotti,S. Perasso,A. Tonazzo
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2015.06.021
Abstract: The main signature for anti-neutrino detection in reactor and geo-neutrino experiments based on scintillators is provided by the space-time coincidence of positron and neutron produced in the Inverse Beta Decay reaction. Such a signature strongly suppresses backgrounds and allows for measurements performed underground with a relatively high signal-to-background ratio. In an aboveground environment, however, the twofold coincidence technique is not sufficient to efficiently reject the high background rate induced by cosmogenic events. Enhancing the positron-neutron twofold coincidence efficiency has the potential to pave the way future aboveground detectors for reactor monitoring. We propose a new detection scheme based on a threefold coincidence, between the positron ionization, the ortho-positronium (o-Ps) decay, and the neutron capture, in a sandwich detector with alternated layers of plastic scintillator and aerogel powder. We present the results of a set of dedicated measurements on the achievable light yield and on the o-Ps formation and lifetime. The efficiencies for signal detection and background rejection of a preliminary detector design are also discussed.
Precise measurement of HFS of positronium  [PDF]
A. Ishida,G. Akimoto,K. Kato,T. Suehara,T. Namba,S. Asai,T. Kobayashi,H. Saito,M. Yoshida,K. Tanaka,A. Yamamoto,I. Ogawa,S. Kobayashi,T. Idehara
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/199/1/012004
Abstract: The ground state hyperfine splitting in positronium, $\Delta _{\mathrm{HFS}}$, is sensitive to high order corrections of QED. A new calculation up to $O(\alpha ^3)$ has revealed a $3.9 \sigma$ discrepancy between the QED prediction and the experimental results. This discrepancy might either be due to systematic problems in the previous experiments or to contributions beyond the Standard Model. We propose an experiment to measure $\Delta_{\mathrm{HFS}}$ employing new methods designed to remedy the systematic errors which may have affected the previous experiments. Our experiment will provide an independent check of the discrepancy. The measurement is in progress and a preliminary result of $\Delta_{\mathrm{HFS}} = 203.399 \pm 0.029 \mathrm{GHz} (143 \mathrm{ppm})$ has been obtained. A measurement with a precision of O(1) ppm is expected within a few years.
Pickoff and spin-conversion quenchings of ortho-positronium in oxygen  [PDF]
N. Shinohara,N. Suzuki,T. Chang,T. Hyodo
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.64.042702
Abstract: The quenching processes of the thermalized ortho-positronium(o-Ps) on an oxygen molecule have been studied by the positron annihilation age-momentum correlation techinique(AMOC). The Doppler broadening spectrum of the 511 keV gamma-rays from the 2gamma annihilation of o-Ps in O_2 has been measured as a function of the o-Ps age. The rate of the quenching, consisting of the pickoff and the spin-conversion, is estimated from the positron lifetime spectrum. The ratio of the pickoff quenching rate to the spin-conversion rate is deduced from the Doppler broadening of the 511 keV gamma-rays from the annihilation of the o-Ps. The pickoff parameter ^1Z_eff, the effective number of the electrons per molecule which contribute to the pickoff quenching, for O_2 is determined to be 0.6 +- 0.4. The cross-section for the elastic spin-conversion quenching is determined to be (1.16 +- 0.01) * 10^{-19} cm^2.
Light propagation and fluorescence quantum yields in liquid scintillators  [PDF]
C. Buck,B. Gramlich,S. Wagner
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/10/09/P09007
Abstract: For the simulation of the scintillation and Cherenkov light propagation in large liquid scintillator detectors a detailed knowledge about the absorption and emission spectra of the scintillator molecules is mandatory. Furthermore reemission probabilities and quantum yields of the scintillator components influence the light propagation inside the liquid. Absorption and emission properties are presented for liquid scintillators using 2,5-Diphenyloxazole (PPO) and 4-bis-(2-Methylstyryl)benzene (bis-MSB) as primary and secondary wavelength shifter. New measurements of the quantum yields for various aromatic molecules are shown.
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